Article From:https://www.cnblogs.com/GetcharZp/p/9060192.html

Aeronautics and Astronautics

Choice question
1. The idea of flying carpet has been realized in the Arabian Nights. – A – the United States
2. About the earth to the moon – C 380 thousand kilometers
3. Established the first regular air route in aviation history — B — Germany.
4. For the lantern, the most important thing is C — self weight.
5. The world’s first human powered aircraft powered by air.
The speed of manned flight is B per hour – 46 km.
6. During the first World War, the aircraft used the biplane – B – wings.
7. The aviation industry is gradually emerging – B – (after World War II)
8. Germany made the first jet – D – Germany.
9. The United States has realized the first supersonic flight of mankind — C — the United States.
10.The reason why Concorde was eliminated is D – low speed.
11.The first aircraft made by China was born on its own. – C – 1954
12.China is not included in the launch center. – D – Shihezi
13.The Airbus Company was established. – A – 1970
14.China’s advanced trainers include. – D – Falcons
15.The reason for this is that the spacecraft originated in China because of its research on rockets. – D – Rocket
16.The first manned spaceship in China is B Shenzhou five.
17.The floating principle of lighter than air vehicles is A buoyancy.
18.The propeller is the power source of the helicopter. – C – Propeller
19.Generally speaking, civil aircraft is mainly. – D – fixed wing aircraft
20.According to international regulations, the registration mark of aircraft must be. – A – letters, numbers
Or the combination of letters and numbers
21.F-117 The shape is especially affected by the stealth material. – C – stealth
Material Science
22.The most rare type of A is umbrella.
23.The most important factor affecting glider flight is B air flow.
24.SR-71It’s a supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft – A – SR-71
25.The propeller type of helicopter is not included — D — double helix interworking.
26.About F-22, the following statement is wrong – B – has retired.
27.The Maher number of a plane at low speed may be – C – 2.3
28.The angle of attack is A — the angle between the advancing direction of the wing and the chord of the wing.
29.According to Bernoulli’s principle, the following relation is correct — A — large area and low speed.
Small pressure
30.Compared with the same type of aircraft, the landing gear of JF -15 is more than D of other aircraft – 2~3 times.
31.A phenomenon occurs when an aircraft approaches the stall angle of attack. – C – jitter
32.The calculation of lift does not require data to be used — B — the volume of an aircraft.
33.The Maher number of an airplane flying at supersonic speed may be – B – 1
34.The aircraft fuselage is designed as a cone, mainly for C – to reduce aircraft resistance.
35.The most important resistance of aircraft at low speed is B friction resistance.
36.The disturbing source sits at constant speed in a static air at subsonic speed, then the M value is B
——Greater than 0 is less than 1
37.In the two train of thought of aircraft design, the most important thing is A – stability.
38.Generally speaking, the resistance produced by a normal shock wave is the resistance produced by oblique shock waves. – D –
greater than
39.It is mainly used to ensure the stability of the direction of the aircraft. – A – vertical tail
40.In aircraft take-off stage, the need to increase as much as possible is B lift.
41.It may have adverse effects on the side of the plane. – D – three vertical tail wings
42.Generally speaking, the cruising speed of an aircraft is the highest speed of the aircraft — C — 70%~80%
43.The control surface that makes the aircraft roll on both sides is A — main wing.
44.For wind tunnels used in aircraft experiments, () is not a key factor. – B – circling high
degree
45.The main way to connect the external components of an aircraft is. – D – riveting
46.In general, the typical structure of the wing is. A – beam structure
47.In the beam wing structure, the material of the stringer is generally (). C – aluminum alloy materials
48.Structurally, the type of the fuselage does not include. A — truss plate
49.()The sealing property is good. – D – single block structure
50.Among the following factors, the greatest impact on aircraft takeoff and landing performance is. – A – machine
Wing
51.The fuselage of an aircraft is divided into upper and lower structures by (). – C – the floor
52.Generally speaking, the main control surface of the aircraft does not include () – C – main wing.
53.The rear three point landing gear is generally used (). C – low speed aircraft
54.In case of emergency, the general operation mode of aircraft landing gear is () – A – hydraulic pressure.
And air pressure
55.The gliding device of a water plane has () – D – hull type and float type.
56. The most important factor affecting rotor lift is (). – B – wing profile
58. ()It is used to prevent the rolling of a single wing helicopter. – B – tail rotor
59.The design of the automatic gyroscope is completed (). – D – 1930s
60.The helicopter’s airborne equipment does not include () – A – rudder.
61.The rotor system is made up of (B) – blades and paddles.
62.The developed aviation industry in developed countries is based on a large number of (-) – A – Design and experience.
63.The advantages of cross – type helicopters do not include (-) – D – larger external dimensions.
64.The fish eagle belongs to () – C – transport plane
65.The world’s first complete control system, automatic navigation to complete the task of the first unmanned.
The machine is (). – A – V-1
66.With regard to the degree of use of UAVs, the following statement is correct: (A) – world navigation.
One of the most active aircraft in a developed country
67.The first time the tank missiles were used. – A – cable remote control
68.The following is wrong about the use of wireless remote control for UAVs. – A
——High cost of aircraft
69.UAV can reduce radar reflectivity with nonmetallic materials. – D – knot
Structure requires low strength
70.The data that can be precisely given by inertial navigation platform are not included. – D – acceleration
71.The way of UAV take off is, D – carrier launch and rocket booster.
72.Risk landing is mainly for recycling. – D – automatic control system
73.In the way of UAV recovery, the highest breakage rate is. – C – drop by the umbrella
74.The first man-made satellite was launched (). – C – October 4, 1957
75.It’s out of speed. – B – Second Cosmic Velocity
76.The composition of the satellite is not included. – A – shock absorption system
77.Dongfang red third belongs to. – D – Communication Satellite
78.The first successful launch of our country was completed by satellite. – B – Long March
No. two
79.The fuel of the long march four launch vehicle engine is. D — nitrogen tetroxide and partial two
Methylene hydrazine
80.So far, the best satellite launching base in the world is. – C – Kuru
81.The first manned spaceship was launched by the Soviet Union. B – Dongfang red
82.The brightest stars that have been observed on the earth are. – C – Mars
83.Generally speaking, the quality of aero-engine does not consider its (D) power.
84.The working medium of an electric rocket engine is usually () – A – gas.
85.The characteristics of the piston engine do not include (). D — big murmur
86.At this stage, the use of nuclear rocket engines is mainly made use of (). – B – nuclear
fission
87.The extra force of an airplane is usually used (). – B – Emergency acceleration
Judgment problem
1. The strange humid flying car in Greek mythology reflects the thirst for aerospace.
2. Compared with spacecrafts, aircraft is more complex in appearance. (a)
3. Unlike rigid airships, rigid airships have no skeletons. – (*)
4. From the point of view of working principle, modern turbine engines are almost the same as horse lanterns.
5. The stability of an aircraft in the air is more important than its gravity. –
6. The downwind is more conducive to take-off and landing. – (*)
7. The two World War played a great role in promoting the aviation industry. –
8. A plane with a turbine transmitter will disintegrate after a certain speed.
9. The artificial ground controlled UAV is the main development for a long time in the future.
To. – (*)
10.Radar pairs cannot be monitored with planes below a certain height. –
11.Shenzhou nine spaceship began, and our country achieved artificial speed in space for spacecraft.
Influence is exerted on the degree and direction. –
12.Compared with aerospace, aviation is closer to the life of ordinary people. –
13.Motivation aircraft can be divided into two categories: rotor and bionics. –
14.The existing level of science and technology has already realized the landing of the aircraft, but it can not achieve water.
Fly — (x)
15.The normal layout of the horizontal wing relative to the wing position is the small wing behind the large wing.
——(√

16.1998 The bomber was bombed by our Embassy in the Southern Alliance. –
17.The wing of the helicopter is fixed and unable to change its position. – (*)
18.Influenced by aerodynamics, profile shapes are less. – (*)
19.The lift of aircraft will increase with the increase of attack angle. – (*)
20.The best way to reduce aircraft frictional resistance is to adjust the separation point — (x).
21.When designing an aircraft, the critical number should be reduced as far as possible. – (*)
22.When the aircraft is cruising, the gravity of the aircraft is greater than lift. – (xxx)

23.Generally speaking, the aircraft with good maneuverability is relatively stable. – (*)
24.The cruising speed is generally subsonic. –
25.The investigation of aircraft endurance is mainly about voyage and voyage. –
26.The wing of early aircraft was used to store fuel, and this design has been cancelled. –
—(√)
27.The frame is the mid term of the wing used mainly for aircraft development. It is a beam structure and a truss structure.
Transition type. – (*)
28.The increase of lift can certainly reduce the speed requirement of aircraft take-off and uplift. – (*)
29.It is probably because of the strength of the aircraft when the force exceeds the theoretical value.
Too high, which may lead to too heavy fuselage. –
30. The major use of armed helicopters on aircraft carriers is mainly due to their flexibility in the air.
Other types of aircraft can effectively guarantee the safety of aircraft carriers. – (*)
31. Heavy helicopter take-off weight is between 4 and 10 tons. –
32.At this stage, the maximum speed of the helicopter is generally not less than 300 kilometers per hour. (x)
33.It is difficult for the tail rotor to control the balance when the aircraft is unstable. –
34.The low stage of UAV development is the stage of manual remote control. –

35.With the development of technology, the scale of UAV has been greatly developed.
The man-machine can reach hundreds of kilograms. – (*)
36.In order to reduce cost and reduce weight, UAV used some wood in some early models.
A qualitative part. –
37.A self controlled aircraft needs remote control on the ground. – (xxx)

38.At present, most of the navigation used by astronauts are Doppler navigation and inertial navigation. –
39.RQ-1The predator belongs to the unmanned attack machine. –
40.It is much more complicated for an UAV to land than to take off. –
41.Within the same time, the perimeter of the sector swept by the sun and the planets in motion is all.
It’s equal. – (*)
42.Under the action of universal gravitation, all celestial bodies operate according to the truncated conic orbit. –
(√)
43.Generally speaking, satellites need to constantly adjust their attitude to receive solar energy during operation.
The demand for self temperature is not high. – (*)
44.From a latitude, the closer to the equator is, the more conducive to launch the rocket. –
45.It is possible that satellites will enter space with relatively high density of air and low density of air.
The phenomenon of springback. – (xxx)
46.1878 In, astronomers in Italy observed Mars by means of binoculars and found traces of rivers on Mars.
Trace. –
47.The United States launched the world’s first space station Skylab. – (*)
48.Solid rockets are lighter in weight, but less liquid than rockets. – (*)
49.Pulsating jet engines are characterized by full combustion and high utilization of energy.
50.The working quality of the electrostatic rocket is mercury and hydrogen. –

 

Part 1 (1)
Homework questions: after class first chapters first, second, third, 6, 7, second chapters first, third, seventh, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 18, third chapters first, fourth, sixth.1, 2, 7, 12 questions fifth chapters first, second, third, 4 questions.
Two) part
A single choice question
1.The great feat of flying for the first time was completed by two Frenchmen in (c).
A 1788 B 1852
C 1783 D 1899 2.The Wright brothers, in December 17th (b), drove 1 of the powered glider flight, the first continuous and controlled power flight in the history of human history, and created a new era of power flight.
A 1899 B 1903
C 1909 D 1911 3.Before the birth of the aircraft, the outstanding contribution to handling and stability was (b). A America’s Wright brothers B German Li Lin Dahl C American Langley D British Kelly 4. is the navigation of manned or unmanned aircraft on the earth (d).2 pages A high altitude B atmosphere C cosmos D atmosphere 5. lighter than air aircraft, air ratio aircraft earlier enter the use. In the five generation of China, “Kong Ming Deng” appeared. This is the embryonic form of B. 8 page A BThe hot-air balloon C helicopter D airship 6. lighter than the air vehicle (c) lifts. The 3 page A is relative to the air to generate the buoyancy force of lift C air, B thrust D pull force, and the air vehicle of 7. (a) lift off. 3 page A and airThe relative motion produces the lift B thrust C air static buoyancy D pull 8. aircraft power device core is (b) A propellant B engine C combustion system D fixing device 9. glider is the fixed wing aircraft without (a) heavier than the air.A power plant B fuel system C control system D hydraulic gas system 10. light helicopter general use (d) A float type landing gear B wheel landing gear C slide rail ejector D skid type landing gear for most helicopters using (b) ABuoy type landing gear B wheel landing gear C slider ejector D skid landing gear 12. with stealth helicopter for (d) A American Black Hawk B American Apache C French Super Hornet D United States Comanche 13. USA developed V 22The fish eagle belongs to (d) 6 pages
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A Boeing, helicopter B Lockheed, tilting rotorcraft C Lockheed, rotorcraft D American Baer, tiltilla 14., many of the human exploration and testing of flight started from the flight of (d). 10 page A mimics dragonfly B imitates bee C to imitate CangFly D mimics the spring and Autumn period (d) of the flying bird 15/.. It is regarded as the embryonic form of the modern aircraft, the B wood warbler, the B wood warbler, the C Kong light D kite 16._ (b), the two Frenchmen in the Mongol balloon and the air in the high altitude of 1000m.Flying 12km, completing the great feat of human flight for the first time A October 5, 1883 B November 21, 1783 C October 5, 1683 D October 1583 5Day 17. (b), () the Wright brothers were driving their own made flight 1 aircraft 4 times, achieving the earliest human continuous power controlled flight 11 page A November 17, 1901, B 1903, USADecember 17th, American C November 17, 1901, United States D November 17, 1903, British 18. First World War, machine gun firing coordination device first obtained on the (c) FOK single wing aircraftThe 12 page A us B UK C German D French 19. piston engine and propeller propelled aircraft can’t break through the sound barrier, and (c) the emergence of the 14 A internal combustion engine B steam engine C turbojet engine D motor 20In October 14th.1947, the United States (b) first broke through the sound barrier 15 A F100 aircraft B X1 research machine C MIG 19 D XS research machine 21. () year, (d) first test flying supersonic passenger aircraft. AIn 1965, the United States B 1968, the United States C 1965, the Soviet Union D 1968, the Soviet Union 22.1969 years (c) supersonic passenger plane flight test successfully. 22 A American B747 B B787 C Concorde flyAircraft D European Airbus A350 23. currently the largest aircraft in the world is (a) 22 A A380 B B747 C B787 D Concord aircraft 24. stealth aircraft is the first practical model is (b) 18
A B2 B F117 C B 1 D F22 25.Equipped with remote Exploration Radar and corresponding data processing and communication equipment, for search, to see the air and sea targets is (b) 19 A electronic jammer B air warning aircraft C reconnaissance aircraft D antisubmarine aircraft 26. to the enemy radar and communication equipment to interfere with the military aircraft (A). 20 A electronic jammer B airborne early warning aircraft C reconnaissance aircraft D antisubmarine aircraft 27. is specially used for searching local military intelligence aircraft (c). 20 A patrol aircraft B airborne early warning aircraft C reconnaissance aircraft D antisubmarine aircraft 28. in (a)A large-scale use of jet fighters A Korean War B Vietnam War C Middle East War D Gulf War 29.1991 years (d) is the symbol of modern air force high technology local war A Korean War B Vietnam War C Middle East War D Gulf War 30. in the modern local wars, the first real air war is (b). A Gulf War B Kosovo war C Afghanistan war D Iraq war 31. fourth generation fighter representative is (a). A American F22 B EuropeanEF2000 C the French gust D Sweden’s JAS39 32. has a forward swept wing aircraft (a). A X29 B Su 30 C Su 27 D X45 33. the following (d) helicopter belongs to the fourth generation helicopter 25
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A The United States Baer 47 B French Super Hornet C American Apache D NATO NH-90 34. belongs to China’s first generation supersonic fighter is (). A annihilate 5 B annihilate seven C destroyers ten D annihilate 1235. belong to China second generation superThe speed fighter is (b). A J-6 B destroyer C C D 1236., China’s own third generation fighter with complete independent intellectual property rights is (c). 29 A J 7 B J-8 C annihilate D annihilate1237. China’s super 7 fighter jets are also known as them. D33 A J-7 B annihilate C C 10 D Flying Leopard 38. dragon dragon /FC-1 type light duty multipurpose fighter is developed in China, (b) participated in the development of the new fighter 33 AIran B Pakistan C Turkey D UK 39. China’s Jones 7 aircraft also known as (d). 33 A annihilate seven B long dragon /FC-1 C C eight II D Flying Leopard 40. fighter 11 fighter is China’s introduction of Russia (a)On the basis of the fighter, the third generation heavy air superiority fighter, 30 A Su 27 B Su 30 C Su 25 D MIG 2941. China fourth generation stealth fighter is successful in the first flight (a), indicating that Chinese military aviation has already owned fourth generation of aircraft.Advanced technology A January 11, 2011 B October 1, 2011 C January 11, 2012 D October 1, 2012 42.The most effective method of measuring a fighter. A) radar (B) infrared C) acoustics (D) optical 43. hypersonic flight refers to the maximum flat flying Maher number of the aircraft is greater than or equal to (b) of the flight.
(A)3 (B)5 (C)10 CD)20 44. The first light passenger aircraft designed and produced by teachers and students from the Beijing aeronautical College of Beihang University is (c) A “Xiang Feng” (B) 5 C), Beijing 1 (D) and 1045. of Beihang University, “Beijing,” 1. “1The plane can be a passenger (b).
(A)6 CB)8 (C)15 D)50 46.The first successful Chinese aircraft to fly over the roof of the world was (d) 36 CA) “Xiang Feng” (B) transport 5 C) Beijing 1 (D) in January, the development of China’s development adapted to the Western Plateau Airport in China.The new type of turbofan airliner project required by the complex route operation is (c) (A) transport 10 B) “the hawk” 500 (C) ARJ21 D) K8 48.AC313 is the first China to develop completely according to the regulations and procedures of the airworthiness regulations (d).) transport helicopter. (A) light (B) small CC) medium (D) large 49. atmosphere from low to high order of (d) 48 CA) stratosphere, troposphere, heat layer, middle layer (B) troposphere, stratosphere, heat layer, intermediate layer CC) stratosphere,The temperature of troposphere, stratosphere, heat layer (D) troposphere, stratosphere, middle layer and heat layer 50. troposphere and (b) 49 CA) has no obvious change (B) in the troposphere, the stratosphere, the middle layer and the heat layer (C). The increase of the temperature of the 51. stratosphere increases with the height of the 51. stratosphere.__d__. 49 A) there was no significant change (B) in decreasing C). The D level increased first, and the 52. stratospheric atmosphere was mainly (d). 49 A) vertical direction and horizontal direction (B) vertical direction C) have no obvious direction (D) horizontal direction.53. the temperature in the middle layer increases with the height of ___d__. 49 A) no definite rule (B) decreased C) there was no significant change (D), and the upper troposphere in the 54. atmosphere distribution was the stratum of phlei. A) hot layer (D) dispersion in the stratosphere (B) middle layer CThe temperature of the 54. heat layer of the escape layer increases with the increase of ___d. Forty-nine
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A)No definite rule (B) decreased C) there was no significant change (D) in the 55. atmosphere. The outermost layer was __d__. 49 A) stratospheric (B) interlayer C) thermal layer (D) escape layer 56. aircraft’s flight environment is _b__. A) the whole universe(B) atmospheric flight environment C) space flight environment (D) vacuum flight environment 57 A Van Allen “radiation belt” exists in the earth. A) the ionosphere (B) of the earth’s space environment, the C of the earth’s upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere (D) of the earth’s space environment, and the interplanetary space 58..In the quasi atmospheric state, the speed of sound propagation in the atmosphere is __c___m/s o
(A)296 C B)340 (C)341 D)345 59.The difference between temperature and centigrade temperature is __c__.
(A)256 B)264 (C)273 D)293 60.The greater the compressibility of the fluid, the sound velocity is __c__. 55 A) the bigger the C (B) is, the smaller the (D) uncertainty is. 61., for gas, the carrier will be __a__ with the increase of temperature. (viscosity) (A) increasing (B) decreasing C) constant D)It is _a___ to determine the 62. negligible load. A) ideal fluid (B) compressible fluid C) incompressible fluid (D) steady fluid 63. density invariant fluid is __c__. A) ideal fluid (B) steady fluid C) incompressible fluid (D)The greater the Maher number of the 64. flow of unsteady fluid, the greater the degree of air compression caused by flight __d_. (A) smaller (B) unchanged C) the greater the uncertainty (D), the greater the effect of oil heating on reducing flow loss and saving energy consumption when 65. pipelines are used to transport oil.This is related to the liquid (b). (viscosity) A) continuity (B} load C) compressibility (D) pressure 66. (d) can be used as an indicator of the degree of compression of the air. 55 A) Reynolds number (B) sound speed C) aircraft speed of flight (D) horseWhen the plane is flying in a horizontal straight line, the size of the lift is equal to (a) A) the thrust of the engine (B) acting on the aircraft’s resistance C) the continuous equation of the ascending force of gravity (D) upward of the ascending force of the 68. fluid is followed by the law of the law (b). 60 A) energy conservationConstant (B) mass conservation (C) momentum conservation (D) conservation of momentum moment, the mass flow rate of 69. airflow in the contraction pipe will decrease with the area and _d__. (A) increases (B) decreases C) decreases with the decrease of flow velocity (D) unchanged 70..The continuous equation of incompressible fluid, the cross section of the flow tube becomes larger, the average velocity of flow (c) 61 A) becomes larger (B) unchanged C) smaller (D) not 71. Bernoulli theorem is the application of (c) in the fluid flow (c). 61 A) law of mass conservation (B)The law of conservation of motion (C) the law of conservation of energy (D) the continuity theorem of the fluid (D) 72. as the thickness of the glass tubes 1, 2, 3, as shown in the following diagram, when the fluid in the pipe is not flowing, the level of the liquid level in the three glass tubes is A) the highest B glass of the glass tube 1 surface.The highest C of 2 liquid surface) the highest D of the glass tube and the highest level of D) the level of the liquid level in the three glass tubes is the same as the level of the liquid in the container, 73. as the thickness of the glass tube, 1,2,3, as shown in the above figure. When the fluid in the pipe flows steadily, the level of the fluid level in the container is maintained.The level of the liquid level in the three glass tubes is () A) the level of the liquid level in the three glass tubes is the same as the level of the liquid in the container B) the liquid surface in the glass tube 1 is the highest C) the level of the liquid surface in the glass tube 3 is the highest.) the level of the liquid surface in the three glass tubes is higher than that in the liquid flow without the liquid flow.In varying degrees, 74. low velocity air flow in a variable cross-section pipe (c) 62 A) is known by the Bernoulli equation. When the pipe contracts, the flow velocity of the air flow will increase by B). It is known that the static pressure of the air flow will be reduced when the pipe is contracted.
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C)When the pipe is expanded, the flow velocity of the air flow will be reduced by D). When the pipeline expands, the total pressure of the air flow will increase the flow of 75. supersonic flow in the variable cross section pipe when the flow is _b___. CA) the velocity change caused by the change of cross-sectional area dominates the density change caused by the change of cross-sectional area of CB.The density of the supersonic flow is CC) the density of the supersonic flow is constant CD) the flow of supersonic flow in the variable cross section pipe is basically the same as that at low velocity, 76. before the stall, the angle of attack increases, then the lift ____c_. 82 (A) decrease (B) constant CC) increase (D) not necessarily 77. to further improve the lift of the aircraft, from which the structure of the lift (D) CA) can be used to change the shape of the wing profile, reduce the wing bending CB) and increase the flight speed CC) to change the flow state of the airflow, control the surface layer on the wing and delay the separation of the airflow from CD) reduce the airflow velocity and energy of the boundary layer and delay the separation of air flow. 78. the main purpose of flaps is to __d___. 83 CA) change pitch state (B), reduce drag CC) change yaw condition (D) and increase lift 79.. Which of the following is not a low-speed aircraft?The resistance ____b_. 88 CA) friction resistance (B) shock resistance CC) pressure difference resistance (D) induced resistance 80. due to the load of atmosphere, the resistance is (a) 86 CA) friction resistance (B) interference resistance CC) pressure difference resistance (D) lure81. reduction in drag and reduction in aircraft windward area and streamline design are effective measures to reduce (b). 87 CA) load friction resistance (B) pressure difference resistance CC) interference resistance (D) induced resistance 82. aircraft retrofit rectifier is designed to reduce (c) 90 CAS carrier friction resistance (B} carrier pressure difference resistance CC) interference resistance (D) induced resistance 83. “sound barrier” is the root cause of the vibration caused by the aircraft (c) caused by the flight (c) vibration (B) power is not CC) shock resistance (CA)D} subduction speed is too fast 84. compared with low subsonic aircraft, supersonic airfoil has a larger (b) than a larger (A) (B) smaller CC) equal (D) no comparability (D). Compared with low subsonic aircraft, the tip root ratio (b) 93 (A) of supersonic aircraft is compared to (b) 93 (A).Larger (B) smaller CC) equal (D) non comparability 86. compared with low subsonic aircraft, the length and fineness of the supersonic aircraft body is equal to (b) 96 (A) larger (B) smaller CC) equal (D) no comparability 87. to low subsonic aircraft, the wing of supersonic aircraftAngle (a) 92 (A) larger (B) smaller CC) equal (D) non comparability 88. compared with low subsonic aircraft, the relative thickness (b) 91 (A) of supersonic aircraft airfoil is equal (B) less CC) equal (D) non comparability
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89.In the process of supersonic disturbance source, the disturbance area of disturbance source is ___c_. The left half plane of the 65 CAS “boundary wave” (the right half plane CC of the B} “boundary wave”) in the Maher cone surface (D) Maher cone surface 90. when the maximum velocity point on the surface of the wing is equal to 1At the time, the corresponding stream Maher number __d_. (69 CA) greater than 1 CB) greater than 1 CC equals 1 (D) less than 191.. When supersonic airflow flows through the shock wave, the B will decrease. 66 CA) density (B) speed CC) temperature (D) pressure 92.. The following statement about shock is correct __d__. 66 CA) the air pressure after the wave surface suddenly decreases (B) after the surface of the wave surface is reduced by CC). The air flow velocity will greatly increase (D) wave surface after the wave surface, and the air density increases by 93..The correct method is (a) 66 CA) the shock wave is always the CB that moves forward at the same speed with the plane’s flight. The shock is actually a strongly compressed layer of thick air CC) the shock wave is the CD of the fixed air micromass.The wing leading edge of a supersonic 94. supersonic aircraft is designed to be sharp in order to reduce _b__. CA) pressure drag (B) shock resistance CC) induced resistance (D} friction resistance 95.) the following statement about high-speed flight is correct _a____. CA) when the flight speed of the aircraft exceeds the critical Maher number, the wing will appear “local shock” CB) usually the local shock CC is first produced on the lower surface of the wing. “Shock separation” phenomenon is caused by the forward and backward rapid flow of the airflow in the surface layer resulting in the CD).When the wave moves backward, the intensity of the shock decreases. 96.. Usually chooses ___b__ wings at low speed. CA) swept back (B) large aspect ratio flat CC) delta wing CD) strake wing 97. civil aircraft at high subsonic speed, usually selected (C) wings to delay the shock wave. 94 CA) swept back (B) large aspect ratio flat CC) delta wing CD) strake wing 98., under the condition of supersonic flight, the ___c___ wing can be selected to reduce the wave resistance. 94@5 CA) trapezoidal wing CB)The ratio of CC to the delta wing CD) is straight 99.. The following airfoil characteristic of a supersonic aircraft is characterized by (a). 91 CA) relatively small thickness CB) asymmetric upper convex lower flat airfoil CC) the maximum thickness is near the CD of the chord at the 1/4 chord) the leading edge has a larger radius of curvature.The 100. voyage is an indicator of an aircraft ___a_. 98@1 CAS “how far away” CBS “fly high” cc} “how fast” cD) mobility lol. for military aircraft, the speed of flight generally refers to __c_. 97@5 cA) maximum flightSpeed (B) cruising speed CC) minimum flat flight speed (D) maximum flat speed 102. for civil aircraft, flight speed generally refers to __b_. 97@5 CA) maximum flight speed (B) cruising speed
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CC)Minimum flat flying speed (D) maximum flat speed 103., when the plane reaches the theoretical static rise limit, the plane (b) 98@8 cA) horizontal velocity is zero (B) perpendicular to zero CC) and the vertical rise speed of the D is 5 m/s 104. as a vertical rise speed.War planes need to rapidly increase speed to improve the accuracy of bombing and shooting, the usual measures are (b) 101@4 CA) (B} subduction CC) Yue Sheng (D) battle turn 105. aircraft need to quickly gain a high degree of advantage, the usual measure is _c_It. CA) somersault (B} subduction CC) Yue Sheng (D) battle turn 106. when combat aircraft need to change the direction of flight and increase the altitude of flight, the usual measures are (d) 101@21 CA) somersault (B} subduction CC) Yue Sheng (D) battle turn107. over stall maneuver refers to the ability of the aircraft to adjust the attitude of the aircraft in the flight state of (c), to achieve the quick head direction and to complete the maneuverable tactical maneuver. CA) below the minimum level flight speed (B) higher than the maximum flat speed CC) exceeding the stall angle of attack (D) the rapid subduction of 108. spin is a continuous automatic rotation movement that occurs after the plane’s flight angle of attack exceeds the critical angle of attack. The rotation axis is (d) CA) rolling axis (B} pitching axis CC) and the yaw axis (D) rotates around the above three axes and 109. about the aircraft.The correct description of the longitudinal stability is (a) 103 CA) before the center of gravity is focused, when the aircraft is disturbed and the head is upside down, the lower stability moment, CB), before the focus of the center of focus, when the aircraft is disturbed and the head subduced under the head, the downward stabilizing moment of the moment CC is produced.After the center of gravity is in the focus, when the aircraft is disturbed and the head is pitching, it produces the lower stability moment CD). After the center of gravity is at the center of focus, when the aircraft is disturbed and the head is down, the upward stability moment 110. on the direction stability of the plane is correct (D) 104 CA) the aircraft mainly depends on the role of the horizontal tail wing to ensure the direction stability CB) the direction stability moment can produce CC before the side slip. The head is left slip on the left side and the right side is called the right slip CD). As long as there is sideslip, the plane will produce direction stability torque 111. to use abdomenThe fin is to make the plane have enough __b__. 104 CA) pitching static stability (B) direction static stability CC) lateral static stability (D) direction maneuverability 112 using the wing back angle to make the aircraft better (c) 104 CA) Fu YangjingStability (B) direction static stability CC} lateral static stability (D} pitching maneuverability 113.) for military fighter planes, __a__ requirements should be higher. 100@8 CA) mobility (B} stability CC) comfort (D) economy 114.The driver’s steering stick swings to the left or to the right, and the aircraft (c) will deflect. 108@2 CA) lift the rudder (B) rudder (C) aileron (D) flap 115. the driver pushes forward or pedals on the left foot, and the __b_ of the aircraft will deflect. One hundred and eight@5 CA) elevators (B) rudder (C) aileron (D) flaps
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116.The aileron mainly manipulate the ___d_ of the aircraft. 108@2 CA) pitching movement (B) rolling motion CC) yaw motion (D) rotation motion 117. the elevator controls the aircraft’s __a__. 107 CA) pitching motion (B) rolling motion CC) yawMotion (D) rotation of the 118. direction rudder mainly controls the _a___ of the aircraft. CA) pitch motion (B) roll motion CC) yaw motion (D) rotation motion 118. elevator on the __d_ of the aircraft. 107 CA) wing CB) horizontal tailWing CC) vertical tail CD) fuselage 119. the driver controls the joystick to push forward () and deflects, and the aircraft generates (b) motion. CA) elevators, pitching (B) rudder, heading CC) aileron, roll (D} flap, rise 120. ablation method)An important way to eliminate (c). CA) shock wave resistance (B) sound barrier CC) thermal barrier (D) sound explosion is 121. dependent on oxygen in the air and the engine working (a)}A) ramjet engine (B} liquid rocket engine (C) solid rocket engine(D) a solar engine 122. turbine shaft engine is more suitable for (c)}A) supersonic aircraft (B} low speed aircraft (C) helicopter (D) large transport aircraft, (c) engine, for the first flight test flight successThe conditions are created. }A) rocket (B) combination (C} piston type (D) air jet 123. aircraft broke through the sound barrier, and the speed of the aircraft to several times faster than the speed of (d) engine. (A) rocket (B) combination (C) piston (D) air jet124. the following engines can not generate thrust directly to make the aircraft move forward (c). }A) rocket engine (B) combined engine (CJ piston engine (D) air jet engine 125. air jet engine cannot be used for space flight.It is (a). 112@8}A) it depends on the oxygen in the air as an oxidant (B} C) is not enough (D) too large (D) is too large, and the 126. piston engine is currently used mainly for (b) 116@}A) supersonic aircraft (B} small low speed flying)The C (D) helicopter (127.) four stroke piston engine operates a cycle, and the main engine turns to (b) weeks. 114@7
(A)1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 128.The fuel for the piston engine is b113@1}A) aviation kerosene (B} aviation gasoline (C) aero diesel port) aero kerosene and air mixture 129. in the working process of the piston engine, the internal energy is converted to mechanical energy (d). 113}A)Intake stroke (B) exhaust stroke (CJ compression stroke (D) expansion stroke 130. piston engine cylinder ignition combustion frequency is usually per second (b) 114 (A) several times (B) several hundred times (D) thousands of times 131. on piston hair.The motive for the following is (a) 116}A) high fuel consumption (B} combustion more complete (C) less power (D) efficiency 132., the most widely used aero engine is (b)}A) turboramjet (B} gas turbine engine)
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(C)Ramjet engine (D) piston engine 133. turbojet engine unit thrust refers to the thrust generated by each (b) air into the engine. 117@2}A) unit volume (}B unit flow (C) bit and product (D) unit time 134The thrust weight ratio of a turbojet engine refers to the ratio of the engine thrust to its structure weight under the maximum working state of the a 117@5 (A) ground (B) the ratio of the engine thrust to the aircraft weight (C) in the maximum working state of the ground (C), the ratio of the maximum thrust to the structure weight of the engine under the flight state of the engine (C)(D) the ratio of the maximum thrust of the engine to the weight of the aircraft in the flight state 135. unit fuel consumption of the turbojet engine refers to the amount of fuel consumed per hour (b) of 117@8. }A) unit power (B} unit thrust (C) unit mileage (D) 100km.The intake port of Cheng 136. (a) usually requires a boundary layer adsorption device. }A) the front intake of the nose (B} intake on both sides of the C (C) nacelle front (D) is not the 137. subsonic inlet shape generally (a)}A diffused (B}).After the contraction (C) diffuses first, the contraction (D) begins to shrink first and then diffuses 138. Ma< when the flow of air flows to the subsonic inlet port, a (c) will be produced to slow down the air flow. }A) positive shock wave (B} oblique shock (C) arcuate shock wave (DThe effect of the adjustment cone in the 139. supersonic inlet of the weakly disturbed wave is (c)}A) to change the direction of the air flow (B} increase the velocity of airflow (C) to produce a slant shock wave, reduce the velocity of airflow (D) to produce a positive shock, and reduce the velocity of airflow by 140. to the tail nozzle of subsonic flight.The form is (b) 127@6}A) diffusion (B} contraction (C) first diffusion after contraction (D) after contraction (D), and then the pressure ratio of 141. centrifugal compressor is generally (a) 118}A) less than 10}B} 10-20}C} 20-30}D) the supercharged 30142. centrifugal compressor has a supercharging ratio (b) compared with an axial flow compressor. }A) larger (B} smaller (C) equal (D) depending on the specific circumstances of the 143. turbojet engine, the first time the kinetic energy of the speed was changed to pressure.It can happen in (b). }A) in the working process of a compressor (B} inlet (C) combustion (D) tail nozzle 144. axis flow compressor, the effect of the stator blade is (d)}A) to increase the air flow (B} reduces the air temperature (C) to the air flow. “Pressure reduction (D) changes the direction of the air flow. The 145. axial flow compressor relies on (b) action to pressurize. }A) working impeller (B} stator and rotor (C) casing ((D)), the 146. adjacent axial flow compressor rotor blades are composed of adjacent blades.A)}A diffusion form (B} contraction form (C) first diffused back contraction (D) first contraction and diffusion 147. (d) is part of turbojet engine combustor. 121@15}A) rectifier (B} turbocharger (C) spoiler (D) swirlerThe main effect of 148. nozzles is (b) 121@17}A) transport fuel (B} to improve the atomization quality of fuel (C) to increase jet velocity (D) formation point fire source 149. into the combustion chamber and the main reason for the air flow into two shares is (d) 122 (A))The flow of air flow is more smooth (B) and fuel mixing more fully (C) is thrust increase (D), the main function of the 150. swirler is (b) 121@18}A) atomization fuel (B} makes full mixing of fuel and air (C) stable ignition (D) increase (D)Pressure 151. turbojet engine capable of producing mechanical energy components is (c)}A) inlet port (B) compressor (CJ turbine (D) combustor.
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152.The channel of turbojet engine turbine blade guide blade is (b)}A) diffusive (B) contraction shape (CJ first diffuses after contraction (D) and then diffuses first, then the gas in 153. turbojet engine passes through the turbine (c) 124}A) pressure (B).) an increase in a} (C} speed (D) speed (D) speed reduction in the front (B) turbine of (b) 125@4}A) turbine (B) turbine (CJ main combustion chamber front (D) main combustorThe correct statement is (d) 125 (A) the existence of rotating components (B) can reduce fuel consumption (C) to reduce gas temperature (D) to increase the speed of airflow D, produce a greater thrust of the 156. engine in low altitude in the condition of low altitude generally not more than (A).10 (B) 20 (C) 30) 40157. supersonic flying aircraft engines should use (c) tail nozzle 127@9}A) diffusive (B) contraction type (CJ Laval nozzle (D) conical 158. about turbojet engineThe following error is (d) 128@1}A) high fuel consumption (B} noise large (C) thrust (D) suitable for low speed flight 159. turboprop engine suitable flight speed range (b) km/h o (A) 400-500 (B) (B)The statement of 500-700 (C) 600-850 (D) 700-900 160. on turboprop engines is correct: (b) 128 (A) turbine only drives the propeller rotation (B) turbine to drive the propeller to rotate, and produces a C screw.The speed of the paddle is much higher than that of the turbine (D). A small part of the propeller produced by the propeller (D) makes up a small part of the total thrust of the aircraft. The main reason for the unsuitability for high speed flight is that the (d)}A} propeller stiffness is not enough (B} propeller strength is not}C) too high (DJ paddle production).The local shock wave 162., in a broad sense, becomes C when the bypass ratio of the turbofan engine decreases to zero. 130}A) turboprop engine (B} turboprop engine (C) turbojet engine (D) turbo shaft engine 163., from a broad perspective, vortexWhen the bypass ratio of the wheel fan engine increases to a certain extent (generally greater than 25), it becomes (c). 130}A) turboprop engine and turbojet engine (B} turbojet engine and turbo shaft engine}C) turboprop engine and paddle fan engine (DJ propeller)Fan of fan and turbo shaft engine 164. turbofan engine is driven by (b). }A) high pressure turbine (B} low pressure turbine (C) motor (D) air blows 165. phase, the turbofan engine on the fighter plane and the phase ratio on the civil aircraft.It is more than general (b). 131 (A) to be large (B) to be small (C) the same (D) depends on the aircraft’s small decision. The bypass ratio of the afterburner turbofan engine selected by the 166. fighter is generally (a). }A) less than 1}B} 1-2}C}4-10}D) the characteristic of the paddle fan with a turbo fan engine below 10167. is (d) 132 (A) no outer shell (B) blade profile is the 40%-50% (D) fan with the diameter of the supercritical airfoil (C) with the diameter of the ordinary propeller only.The number of blades in the UK is less than 168.. The engine of the British harrier is B engine. }A) turboprop fan (B} vertical take-off and landing (C) turbine shaft) the thrust weight ratio of the engine used by the turboprop 169. fourth generation aircraft is about C) right and left.
(A)8 (B)9 (C)10 (D)1 2 170.The specific strength is a __a_.
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CA)Ratio of tensile strength to density (B) ratio of tensile strength to weight CC) ratio of elastic modulus to density (D) modulus of elasticity and weight ratio 171., the upper and lower edge of wing beam of wing beam is () bending moment CA) tension (B) pressure CC) tension and pressure (D) torque 172.The web of the wings of the wing is __d_. CA) bending moment (B} shear CC) torque (D) bending moment and shearing force 173.. In order to make full use of components and reduce structural weight, the B on the landing gear can be combined into one. 157 CA) collecting and releasing institutions and pillars (B)Shock absorber and strut CC) shock absorber and retractable mechanism (D) shock absorber and brake
Two multiple choice questions
1.There are three main categories of aircraft. The following devices belong to the aircraft with abd___. CA) aircraft (B) spacecraft CC) air cushion vehicle (D) rocket and missile 2. __bc___ is lighter than air in the following aircraft. CA) fixed wing aircraft (B) balloon CC) CD. Tilting rotorcraft 3., _bcd____ is a heavier than air aircraft. CA) B aircraft rotorcraft CC (CC) flapping wing aircraft (D) tilting rotor aircraft, 4. of the following aircraft, AC belongs to the fixed wing.Aircraft. CA) aircraft (B) helicopter cc} glider (D) rotorcraft 5. rotor aircraft including bc___. CA) glider (B) helicopter CC) rotorcraft (D) aircraft 6. can be divided into two categories by ad. CA) combat aircraft (B) investigative aircraft CC (D) combat support aircraft 7. BD is a combat support aircraft in the following aircraft. CA) fighter bomber (B) military transport CC) anti submarine aircraft (D) tanker 8.. According to different flight purposes, civil aviation is divided into__bd____ two categories. CA) business aviation (B) commercial aviation CC) professional aviation (D) general aviation 9.. The following can be used as sports events of the aircraft has abcd____. CA) hot air balloon (B} hydrogen balloon CC) hot gas airship CDR heliumAirship 10. must enable the aircraft to successfully fly, and must solve the key problems such as _abd____. CA) lift (B) power CC normal takeoff and landing (D} stable operation 11. belongs to China’s second generation supersonic fighter is bc____. (A) the annihilate 6 CB) annihilate seven CC) annihilate CD 12.. The main products of China’s helicopter industry are ___bcd__. (A) M 4 (B) straight 5
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CC)Straight 8 CD) straight 913. aerocraft stealth technology mainly includes ab CA) radar stealth (B) infrared stealth CC) acoustic stealth (D) optical stealth 14. supersonic cruising capability of the fighter with abd_____ and other advantages. CA) can be fasterFast flying to the battlefield mission CB) can launch missile CC at supersonic flight state) can increase the aircraft’s low flight performance CD) and can avoid the enemy’s attack 15. over stall maneuver at high speed to _adb__ at high speed. CA) is good for aerial close combat (B) is beneficial to increase the climbing rate CC) beneficial to the ability of over the horizon (D) to improve the destruction probability of the target 16., the famous aircraft in the second world war is ab (A) Japan, zero, B us P51 CC) MIG 9 CD in the Soviet UnionThe main task of the US P61 17. fighter is _ac. CA) air combat (B) reconnaissance CC) interception of enemy aircraft (D) transport 18. first generation supersonic fighter aircraft representative type has abc____. (A) F86 (B) F100 CC) MIG19 CD) the Jacques 1819. second generation supersonic fighter aircraft has a representative acd_. (A) MIG 21 (B) MIG 15
(C)F104 CD)F111 20.The representative models of the third generation fighter have BCD (A) F4 (B) F15 CC) Su27 CD) and the MIG 2921. fourth generation fighter should have advanced tactical and technical performance, such as the ability to attack multi target and multi target, and other advanced tactical performance abd. CA) stealth ability (B) superSound speed cruise capability CC) airborne command (D) thrust vector technology 22. the stealth aircraft has abd____.
(A)F22 ( B)F117
(C)JAS39 CD)B2 23.The aircraft with the speed of more than 3 times the speed of the sound is bd_. (A) MIG 23 C B) X- 43A
(C)F22 ( D)SR71 24.The main meteorological characteristics of the stratosphere are __ad__. CA) the wind direction, the wind speed often changes (B) the air up and down convection CC), You Yun, rain, fog, snow and other weather phenomena (D) air flow is more stable, the visibility is better 25. for the heat layer is correct is _abc. CA) air density is minimal (B) air is directly subjected to solar short wave radiation CC) air is in high ionization state (D} temperature increases with height and 26. international standard atmosphere includes abd CA) atmosphere is regarded as complete gas (B) at altitude of sea level to zero heightCC) the temperature is 20 0C CD, which obeys the equation of state of the gas 27.. __bcd__ is the factor that affects lift. CA) the relative speed of the area of the fuselage (B)
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CC)Air density (D) wing profile shape 28. induced resistance is related to _abd___ and other factors. CA) the plane shape of wing (B) wing profile CC) the aspect ratio of D (D) relative position between different parts of the aircraft 29. measures to reduce interference resistance are ACDCA) adding streamlined rectifying film (B) to make the joint slip transition CC) using the area ratio (D) to reasonably arrange the position of the 30. large aspect ratio of the flat wing with _acd. CA) the lift coefficient is large at low speed (B), and the induced resistance is CC at low speed.When the shock wave resistance is high (D), the early 31. aircraft produced by local shock wave will produce abd when the sound barrier occurs. CA) severe buffeting (B) becomes very unstable. CC) shock waves have some effect on ground buildings (D) drivers feel very resistant 32.The correct method is ACD CA) when the pressure of the air increases suddenly after the surface of the wave (B), the temperature decreases after the surface of the wave surface. The velocity of the air flow will greatly decrease (D) after the surface of the wave surface. The airflow density increases after the wave surface (D), and the longitudinal aerodynamic layout of the 33. aircraft includes _abd___. (A) positiveB “duck” type CC) the wing geometric shape parameters of the tail type 34. aircraft with double stand tail type (D) include the ABC CAS wing (B} wing chord CC) front edge sweep angle (D) length of the fuselage to reduce the shock resistance by AC CA) using the triangle CA)Shaped wing CB) using flat wing CC) using the edge wing CD) using the duck layout 36., the main purpose of the swept wing is ABC cA) to increase the stall angle of attack (B) to improve the low speed and high speed performance CC) and improve the critical Maher number (D) to reduce the airfoil area 3}When the speed of supersonic flight, the method of preventing the wing tip to produce stall is BC (A) with wing slightly smaller wing}B), adding wing knife CC on the wing surface and making sawtooth or notch on the wing front edge (D) to open the spoiler 3s. delta wing aircraft with the advantage of ABD cA) structure weightLight (B) gas dynamic focus change range CC) high lift (D) shock wave resistance small 39. small aspect ratio of wing aircraft with the advantage of CD cA) good landing performance (B) low induced resistance CC) low shock resistance (D) motor performance good 40. after the main shortage of swept wing aircraftThe point is ABC CA) the wing is swept away and the rotating mechanism is complex (B), the weight of the structure is large CC) the aerodynamic center changes greatly (D), the flight resistance is large, and the 41.abcd is the variable swept wing aircraft. CA) Russia’s MIG 23 CB) European “gale” CC) F of the United States14 fighter (D) the main component of the 42. power plant of the B1 bomber in the United States includes _abcd___. CA) engine (B) propellant or fuel system CC) fixtures on pipes, accessories, and instrument (D) aircraft.
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43.According to different engine thrust principle and engine working principle, the engine can be divided into _abcd__. CA) rocket motor (B) combined engine CC) piston engine (D) air jet engine 44. the following belongs to the gas turbine engine is _abdIt’s the same. CA) turbojet engine (B), turbofan engine CC) ramjet engine (D) vertical landing engine 45. can produce the thrust of the aircraft directly with BD CA) piston engine (B) turbojet engine CC) turbineFan engine (D) rocket engine 46. the following belongs to the jet engine is ad____. CA) rocket engine (B} steam engine CC) piston engine (D) air jet engine 47. compressor engine has ab CA) turbine sprayGas engine (B) turbo shaft engine CC) ramjet (D) piston engine 48. currently piston engines are mainly used on _abd___ aircraft. CA) small business aircraft (B) agricultural aircraft CC) large and medium sized aircraft (D) small multi-purpose transport 4The main performance parameter of the 9. piston engine is _bcd___. CA) thrust (B) engine power CC) fuel consumption (D) power to weight ratio of 50. gas turbine engine core machine composed of _bcd___. CA) tail nozzle (B) compressor CC) combustor(D) the function of the turbine 51. inlet is ad___. CA) rectifier (B) decompression CC) speed up (D) converts kinetic energy into pressure energy, and 52. inlet shapes can be divided into two categories according to different flying speeds. CA) S – shaped inlet (B) subsoundSpeed inlet CC) the square inlet (D) supersonic inlet is 53.Ma> 1.5 of the aircraft can adopt the _bcd__ inlet. CA) diffusion mode (B) two wave system CC) three wave system (D) multiwave 54 freeze-through flow compressor working process,After the air passes through the rotor blades, the ABC changes. CA) the pressure (B) speed CC) temperature (D) movement trajectory of the 55. axial flow compressor during the working process, the stator blade function is acd___. CA) the acceleration of air flow (B) increases the speed of air flowThe action of CC (D) changes the direction of the airflow. The function of the rotor blade in the 56. axial flow compressor is __bd__. (A) decelerate (B) pressurized CC) adjust air flow direction (D) speed up, 57. turbojet engine has pressurized effect on air.The components are __bd_. CA) intake port (B) compressor CC) turbine (D) tail nozzle 58. jet engine combustor function including _ad___. CA) increase the flow velocity (B) to produce thrust
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CC)Reducing the pressure of the airflow (D) converts chemical energy into heat energy. The afterburner of the 59. turbojet engine has the same characteristics as the main combustor AC. CA) high gas velocity (B) gas mix more fully CC) high combustion temperature (D) high oxygen content rate of 60. turbine propeller.Compared with the piston engine, the engine has the advantage of _abc___. CA) the power to weight ratio is large (B), the fuel consumption is low CC) the vibration is small (D), the low altitude performance is good, and the thrust of the 61. turboprop engine is generated by ___ac_. CA) paddle (B) turbine CCThe tail nozzle (D) compressor 62 turbo propeller engine and turbojet engine ratio has the advantage of __bc__. CA) large power / weight ratio (B), high efficiency in low subsonic flight, low fuel consumption (D), high altitude performance, 63. turbofan engine main, CCThe advantage is _ab___. CA) the thrust force (B) is high (CC), the noise is low (D) and the exhaust speed is high. The outstanding advantage of the 64. oar fan engine is ab___. CA) to promote high efficiency (B) fuel economy CC, the suitable flight speed is high, up to 8.00 km/h above
CD)It’s the first choice for a large and medium airliner
65.In turbojet engine working conditions, ad is strictly restricted.
CA)Take off state (B} rating state CC) cruise state (D) slow vehicle state 66. current thrust vectored thrust vector generated by thrust vectored engine on aircraft mainly includes __bc_. CA) swing engine (B) axisymmetric omnidirectional thrust vectoring nozzle CC) two element thrust vectorThe nozzle (D) baffle 67. ramjet is usually made up of __bc__. CA) compressor (B) inlet CC) combustion chamber (D) tail nozzle 68. modern ramjet can be divided into ___bcd_ engine according to the speed of flight. CA) low speed (B) subThe speed of sound (CC) supersonic (D) hypersonic 69. is different from propellant type, and rocket engines can be divided into several categories of __abd__. CA) liquid propellant rocket motor (B) solid rocket motor CC) gas rocket engine (D) solid liquid mixing engine 70.The main advantage of rocket engine is _bcd__ compared with aero engine. CA) heavy weight (B) thrust is not affected by flight attitude influence CC) thrust and flight height independent (D) flight speed is not restricted by 71: liquid rocket engine according to the number of propellant components used.In general, it can be divided into several forms of ABC. CA) single component (B) bi component CC) three component (D) multi component 72. wing function is mainly _ab___. CA) provide lift (B) to form good stability and maneuverability with the tail wing CC) loading cargo.(D) transportation of fuel oil
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73.The basic force components of the wing include _abd__. CA) longitudinal skeleton (B} transverse skeleton CC) joint (D) skin 74. The following longitudinal skeleton of the aircraft wing is abd___. CA) CC} wing rib of the wing beam (B) longitudinal wall (D} strip 75.The lateral skeleton of the aircraft wing is _ac__. (A) to strengthen the B (wing) CC (vertical wall CC) common wing rib (D} strip 76., the following is about wing beam argument is correct abcd____. CA) it is the most powerful longitudinal member (B) that bears most of the bending moments.And shear CC) combined wing beam and integral forging wing beam (D) are connected to the fuselage with hinged joints at the wing root. The 77. bar is mainly used for _bd__. CA) withstand most of the moment and shear (B) supporting skin CC) to withstand torque (D) to transmit the aerodynamic force of the skin.The typical structural form of the wing with 78. wings is ___acd_. CA) skinned skeleton (B) composite CC) integral panel type (D) sandwich type (three) expansion part
A single choice question
1 The stealth plane appeared in the _c__ year of twentieth Century. Eighteen
(A)60 (B)70 (C)80 C D)90 2 ___d in the following aircraft is an antisubmarine. 20@1
(A)A50 (B)E3 (C)F4 ( D)P3 3.The so-called supersonic cruise refers to the ability of the aircraft to have __b___. CA) at the speed of 1.5 times the speed of 30 min and more CB in the case of the engine opening the afterburner, the speed of 1.5 times the sound speed is 1.5 times that of the engine without the afterburner.The speed of a continuous flight of 30 min or more CC) in the case of the engine opening the afterburner, the continuous flight of 60 min above the speed of 1.5 times the speed of the sound speed is continuously flying at a speed of 1.5 times at the speed of the engine without the afterburner.The flight speed of 60 min and above 4. us F35 is B CA) subsonic (B) Maher number less than 2 of supersonic CC) the number of supersonic (D) Maher number greater than 2 is greater than 3, the earliest ___c__ of supersonic speed 5.A V1 missile equipped with a pulse engine. CA) cruise missiles, American (B) ballistic missiles, American CC cruise missiles, German (D) ballistic missiles, and V2 rockets developed by German 6.c, the first rocket engine in the world to be the driving force.A ballistic missile. CAS 1942 Germany (B} 1942 us C C) 1944 Germany (D) 1944 Britain 7. new China trial success of the first aircraft is b___. 26@3 (A) 1 (B) primary education5 CC) primary education 6 CD) the first aircraft designed and manufactured by China, the first aircraft in batch production and a large number of equipment troops are b26@ (A), 1 (B) primary education 6 CC) fighter 5 CD) J 6 9: China’s first jet fighterA26@7
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(A)JP 1 (B), 5 (C), 6 (D), 510., new China, the first aircraft designed and developed by new China is __a___. 26@7 (A) annihilate religion 1 (B) 5 (C) early education 6 (D) 511. in ChinaFor the first time in the fighter, the conical head and the airplanes on both sides of the fuselage are a 31@8 (A) strong 5 CB), 6 CC), and the first small transport aircraft made of J-10 (D) leopard 12. China is ____a_. 35@6 (A) transport 5CBS “Beijing” 1 (C) transport 11 CDR “Xiang Feng” in October 26th, China’s first light aircraft, which has independent intellectual property rights and suitable for private business activities, was successful for the first time, filling the 4^-5 field in China.A gap in the production of a small light aircraft. B 37@8 (A) shipped 12 CBS “Kitty Hawk” 500 CC) shipped 10 CDR “Xiang Feng” 14. China’s self developed ARJ21 engine is ___b____ 37 cA) turboprop.Engine (B) turbofan engine CC) turbo shaft engine (D) turboprop fan engine 15. China developed the second generation of large helicopters. (A) straight 4 (B) straight 5 CC) straight 8 (D) straight 916.1980 years, China citedThe helicopters which are patented in France are a new type of multi-purpose helicopters representing advanced level in the late 1970s. C 39@1 (A) is straight 4 (B) straight 5 CC) straight 8 (D) Xuan 917.._a__. 49@1 CA) the troposphere (B) stratosphere (C) interlayer (D) hot layer 18. the middle layer of the atmosphere is mainly flowing along. A CA) vertical direction and horizontal direction (B) plumb direction CC) no specific direction (D) horizontal direction 19. in river.In a shallow and narrow area, the flow of water is faster. In the wide and deep channels, the flow is slower, which is the embodiment of fluid C. CA) continuity theorem (B) relative motion principle (C) Bernoulli theorem (D) characteristics of high speed airflow 20. the helicopter’s longitudinal motion is disturbed.The general performance of and lateral motion is d CA) non periodic decay motion (B) non periodic diverging movement CC) periodic amplitude reduction motion (D) periodic increase motion, 21. does not belong to the jet engine for C CA) rocket engine (B) combined engine (C) piston type engineThe piston movement of the 22. piston engine of the D air jet engine is converted from _b___ to the rotation of the propeller shaft. 113 CA) piston (B) linkage mechanism (C) gas compression (D) gas expansion 23., during the piston engine working process, sparksPlug ignition occurs at c113@ CA) intake stroke (B) exhaust stroke (C) compression stroke (D) expansion stroke 24. piston engine running speed is very high, the cylinder every second to ignition and combustion. B114@10 (A) few (B) dozens (C) hundreds(D) the power and weight ratio of several thousand 25. advanced piston engines can reach about _-__c kW/kg. 116@7 CA) 1 one 1.2 CB) 1.45 one 1.65 CC} 1.85 1.85 1.95 CDR 2.75The fuel consumption rate of one 2.85 26. advanced piston engine is about _a___- kg/ C kW. 116@8 (A) 0.46 one 0.48 (C) 0.26 0.28 0.28 (B) 0.36 0.38The fuel consumption rate of (D) 0.16^-0. 1827. turbojet engine is __b__. 117@9 (A) kg/s (B) kg/N.h) (C) kg/ C kw.h) (D) ml/h 28. push of modern turbojet engineUp to cNo116 (A) thousands (B) tens of thousands (C) hundreds of thousands (D) millions of 29., the following does not belong to the gas turbine engine core component is _a___. 116@
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(A)Tail nozzle (B) compressor (C) combustion chamber (D) turbine 30. for the air below the engine combustor is correct is a122@1 CA) most of the flow of air flow into the rear of the flame tube and from the hole in the flame tube into the flame tube CB) after high pressure air combustionFor two strands of CC) most airflow is mixed with fuel to burn CD) a little part of the air flow is used to cool the aircraft of the flame tube 31. turbojet engine which is more suitable for the flight of Ma. A CAS 0.4–0.7 CB) 0.7 1 1. 5 Cc} 0.7A 3 CD) 3-}-5 32. turbojet engine can get the maximum flight speed at km height. C CAS 68 CB) 8 12 CC} 12 one 20 C D 25 25 3033. turbojet engineThe height of use is generally not more than __b__kmo
(A)15(B)20(C)30 CD)40 34.The main structure of the turbofan engine is different from the turbojet engine, the d130@2 CA) added the deceleration unit (B) compressor different CC) the combustion chamber is different (D) with the addition of the inside and outside two culvert 35. turbofan engines and the addition of the turbojet engineCompared to the force combustor, the difference lies in the CA) the low oxygen content of the mixed gas (B) produced a larger CC), and the increase of the rotating component (D) is less than 36.. The “horse” engine developed by Rawls ROIs is a _b____ engine. CA) turboprop fan (B) vertical take-off and landing (C) turbine shaft (D) turboprop 37., as shown in Figure 28, the structure of the ramjet engine, the name of component 2 is “Pun”. CA) fuel injection nozzle (B} nozzle) (C) combustor (D) inlet 38. ratio strength refers to__a__. CA) the ratio of tensile strength to density CB) the ratio of tensile strength to weight CC) the ratio of modulus to density CD) the ratio of modulus of elasticity to weight is 39. ratio to C CA) the ratio of tensile strength to density cB) the ratio of tensile strength to weight and CC)The ratio of modulus to density cD) the ratio of elastic modulus to weight 40. the wing flange acts on the upper and lower flange to form the bending moment. (A) tensile force (B) pressure (C) tension and compression (D) torque 41., the wing splitting function is CA (B) to withstand shear (C).) bearing the torque (D) bending moment 42. wing girders bear the ___d__ CA) bending moment (B} shear (C) torque (D) moment and shear force, in order to make full use of the components, reduce the structure weight, the aircraft landing gear can be one to one? CA).Release mechanism and B (shock absorber and strut CC) shock absorber and retractable mechanism (D) shock absorber and brake 44. aircraft landing gear struts are the role of J. CA) to meet the ground motion and have a certain damping effect CB) is used to absorb and lay down the landing gear CC.Impact energy of land and running, reducing impact load.
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CD)When the load on the ground is loaded in all directions and is used as the supporting part of the installation wheel, 45. engine afterburner will change. CA) the temperature obviously increased (B), the exhaust velocity increased greatly (C), the thrust increased significantly (D), the fuel consumption rate increased by 46., the bypass ratio was right.The turbofan engine has a great influence. (A) fuel consumption rate (B) power (C), power to weight ratio (D), thrust weight ratio, and 47. turbofan engine’s “three high” index is the “Min”. CA) high flying height (B), large power (C), large afterburner ratio (D) economyGood performance of 48. afterburner turbofan engine compared with turbine ejection machine. CA) high flying height (B), large power (C), high afterburning ratio (D), good economic performance, 49. air compressor without compressor, including J. CA) turbofan engine(B) rocket engine (C) ramjet engine (D) pulsating jet engine (D) pulsating jet engine with the advantage of liquid propellant rocket engine with extruded transmission system is CA) simple structure (B) easy to realize multiple start (C) working time (D} 51. airship propulsion unit 1)It is made up of. CA) engine (B) airbag CC) reducer (D) propeller 52. aircraft spoiler is the role of J. CA) increase lift (B), reduce lift (C) and reduce drag (D) rectifying. 53. vortex generator is eliminated.It’s the same. CA) differential pressure resistance (B) interference resistance (C) induced resistance (D). The boundary layer 54. aircraft adopts transonic area law to eliminate the noise. CAS load friction resistance (B} differential pressure resistance (C) interference resistance (D) induced resistanceForce 55., the reason for the phenomenon of air drift is that it is called “Qi”. CAS lateral lateral static stability is insufficient (B} lateral static stability effect is too large CC) longitudinal static stability effect is insufficient (D} lateral static stability effect is too large.
Two multiple choice questions
1.General aviation refers to the flight activity of 2 CA for bcd_ etc.) small passenger transport (B) geological exploration CC) public service (D) sightseeing 7 of the following balloons of the following is correct is __cd__. 146 the A B balloon is launched by hot air.For high-altitude detection, no manned C can be controlled by pneumatic rudder. D the majority of hot-air balloons can be manned by 8 rotors and the difference between helicopters is __bd_. 5,6 A power different B rotor’s driving mode is different, C take-off way is different, D helicopter can suspend.Stop and rotor machine can not be 9 national defense system neural center is composed of _bd and other components 2 A detection satellite B military communications satellite C military meteorological satellite D air warning and command aircraft 10 geosynchronous orbit communication satellite will take bc_ as the main development direction. 7 A high power B long life C low frequency D high frequency section 11 China’s helicopter industry started in the late 1950s, and experienced abcd_ stage. 38 A introduce foreign technology B reference design C develop D by ourselves.International cooperation 12 China’s long march series carrier rocket belongs to the bundled series multistage rocket, which is _cd___. A Long March 2 E B Long March 2 F C Long March 2 F D Long March 4 a 131999 year long march four B launch rocket successfullyThe two satellites were BD A, Dongfanghong 4, B Fengyun 1.
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C2 No. D Practice No. five 14 as China’s first spaceship, Shenzhou I checked the abcd_ and recovery landing technology of the spacecraft. A cabin chain and separation technology B regulation and braking technology C lift control technology D heat protection technology 15 skillful description of thrust vectorThis is _ad___. A through the deflections of the jet nozzle that is far away from the center of the aircraft’s center of gravity and change the direction of the thrust of the engine. B generates a larger control torque by the jet airflow of the engine. C can change the direction of the thrust by changing the angle of the engine relative to the axis of the aircraft’s fuselage to change the direction of the thrust of the aircraft.The basic principle of 16 stealth is ___bcd_. The outline of the A main components strives to perpendicular to each other B as far as possible to avoid the radar’s vertical exposure to the aircraft’s surface C elimination of the strong scattering source D eliminates the shape layout of the corner reflector 17Before the first World War to the Second World War, the aircraft was characterized by _ab__. The A single wing layout aircraft gradually replaced the landing gear of the two wing aircraft B aircraft. The maximum speed of C was reached to 700km per hour, D began to use autopilot and radio.Technology 18 the aircraft capable of taking off and landing vertically is _ac___. A the British crow aircraft B F18 C Soviet Jacques 38 D Su30 19 below the wrong statement is _abc__. A fixed wing aircraft is made by rotating its propeller.The main difference between the lift B aircraft and the glider is that their wings are installed in different types of C helicopters and whirling machines, all of which are driven by its power device to directly drive the rotor to generate lift. The current space shuttle is the 20 side layer separation of the aircraft that can land as level as the plane.The precondition is _ac__. A fluid is viscous B exists shock wave C there is an inverse pressure gradient D speed reaches a certain value. The main reason for the 21 delta wing aircraft suitable for supersonic flight is _bd__. The relative thickness of a wing is smaller than that of B C.The variation range of the wing focus is favorable to the flight of the maneuverable aircraft. The resistance of the D shock wave is small. 22, in the supersonic flight, the airfoil with smaller wave drag has _bc___. A double arc B rhombus C wedge D oval 23 measures to increase the maximum speed of the aircraft are _abcIt’s the same. A reduces the flight resistance of the aircraft, B increases the thrust of the engine C optimizes the shape of the aircraft, optimizes the shape of the plane D and increases the load of the load 24. In the flight process, the rolling torque of the plane to automatically restore the lateral equilibrium state is mainly __ab_. The effect is produced. A wing on the backAngle B horizontal tail C wing sweep angle D vertical tail 25 generally, after the helicopter is disturbed, there may be __cd_ motion. A aperiodic decay motion B aperiodic divergence C periodic equal amplitude motion D periodic increase or amplitude reduction motion26 the following statements about piston engines are correct, __cd__.
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A Converting thermal energy into mechanical energy C and low fuel consumption B can directly generate thrust D that propellers forward, and generate thrust by driving the propeller.
(Three) comprehensive part
A single choice question
3.Feng Ru, China’s earliest successful design of the first aircraft, he flew in his (c) aircraft designed to fly 25@12 successfully.
A 1899 B 1903
C 1909 D 1910 4.The first glider was made by (D) in 1891. 11@1 A British Kelly B American Langley C Wright brothers D German Li Lin Dahl 5. the first rigid airship was designed and manufactured by (B). 9@10 A Monggol brothersB Zeppelin C Wright brothers D jofal 6.1939 years (B) successfully tested the world’s first He-178 aircraft equipped with a turbojet engine. 14@9 A UK B Germany C France D America 7. China’s first self design andThe successful name of the aircraft is (B). 26@7 A, 5 B, 1 C, 6 C D 8., China’s first self designed and manufactured helicopter with independent intellectual property rights (D). 40@1 A straight 5 B straight 8 C straight9 D Zhi 119. China’s first self designed and developed aircraft was named (B). A primary education 5 B destroyer 1 C primary education 6 D 10. 10. China’s first light passenger aircraft is named (B). A 5 B Beijing 1No. C annihilating 5 D Kitty Hawk 50011. the first international voyage in history was initiated by French Bly Leo in (D).
A 1783 B 1852 C 1899 D 190912.The first night bombing in air combat history uses () to identify targets and directions. A moonlight B spring fire C strong light flashlight D searchlight 13. during World War I, the main weapon of the fighter was (A). A machine gun B machine gun C rifle D rocket 14. sprayAir combat between the air fighters began (C). A the Korean War B C Vietnam War at the end of the Second World War D Suez Canal Crisis skillful. Modern stealth technology development focuses on confrontation (D) and () detection. A radar, visible light B infrared, sound sound C visibleLight, acoustic D radar, infrared
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16.The minimum standard to qualify for “ace” pilots is to shoot down (B) planes. 12@
A 10 B 5
C 6 D 8 17.The first person in the world to think about science and study flying is (A). A Italy Renaissance giant David Finch B Chinese scientist Zhang Heng C British scientist William Tom born D Russian scientist Mendeleev 18. according to Western standards, our own self-made j 1 8Belongs to the (C) generation hypersonic fighter. A one B C three D four 19., according to Western standards, our own developed J-1 10 belongs to the (B) generation supersonic fighter. A two B three C three three D four 20. shock is a strong compression wave.The boundary wave, the pressure of the air behind the wave surface suddenly (), and the velocity of the air is much larger (A). 66@ A increases, decreases B, increases C, decreases D, and decreases the wave resistance of 21. positive shock wave (A) oblique shock wave. A is greater than B equalsC is less than D and there are various reasons for the resistance of the 22. aircraft in flight. There are different names for the resistance produced by different causes, in which the resistance to the rise of the lift is called (B). 88@6 A friction resistance B induced drag resistance C interference resistanceThe D shock resistance 23. is mainly resistance to (d) resistance generated by high-speed aircraft flight. A friction resistance B induced resistance C interference resistance D shock resistance 24. F-16. F-17 and Sui 27 fighter aircraft are adopted (A).A variable swept wing B forward swept wing C canard D strake wing 25. aircraft wingspan refers to (C). The length of the A aircraft, the height of the B aircraft, the width of the C aircraft, the width of the D wing, and the 26. low speed flight performance of the large sweep angle wing can be adopted (A).) to solve it. A flank B delta wing C small show string than wing D flat wing flying at low speed, air flow through the wing surface speed (), flow through the wing surface speed (), the pressure () on the upper surface (), the pressure of the lower surface (B) in order to produce an upward lift. A slow fast, high and low B fast low, high C fast and slow D slow fast low high 28. under normal circumstances aileron installed in the aircraft (C). A wing leading edge outside B wing leading edge C wing rearThe inside edge of the outer D wing 29. (C) refers to the angle between the leading edge of the wing and the straight line perpendicular to the symmetric plane of the wing root. A leading edge swept angle B attack angle C sweep angle D critical angle of attack 30. indicates how far the aircraft can fly, the flight performance index is (C). Ninety-eight@1
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A Speed B lift limit C range D cruise speed 31. sufficient lift is the necessary condition to keep the aircraft flying, the lift size and aircraft flight speed (d81@ A is proportional to B is inversely proportional to the square of the square of the square of D is proportional to the square of the square of D, when the 32. aircraft taking off and landing is increasing.The lift should be manipulated (D). 83 A aileron B elevator, C rudder, D flap, 33. aircraft, the number of flight Maher is 0.85 < Ma < 1.3 hours of flight is called (). A subsonic flying B transonic flight CSupersonic flight D hypersonic flight 34. should be manipulated (A) to achieve aircraft pitching motion. 107 A elevator B rudder C aileron D trailing edge flap 35. which of the following engines is not air jet engine D (). B vortices of A turboprop engineFan engine C ramjet D piston engine the main stress component of the 36. beam wing is (A). A wing beam B longitudinal wall C split bar D wing rib 37. jet engine unit fuel consumption rate refers to a unit of thrust per hour consumption of fuel, the unit is b117@8 A.Kg/ (N h) B.Kg/ (KN h) C.KN/ (C)) (38.). 127@9 A. contractile tube B. dilatation tubeC. contraction expansion tube D. expansion tube 39. aircraft can be divided into (b) three categories. 3@2 A. fixed wing aircraft, rotorcraft, flapping wing aircraft B. boat Hoi Kong, Fang Tian, rockets and missiles. C. rockets and missiles, satellites, manned spacecraft D. or above are not.. 40. measures to prevent air jet engine axial compressor surge are (B) A. canceling stator, reducing turbine blade number B. release, adjusting stator blade angle, double rotor compressor C. increase turbine blade stiffness D. good material to make compressor blade 41. span sound speed flightThe purpose of a plane is to make the “wing waist” shape of the wing and fuselage joint. A. in order to look up B. in order to reduce the wave resistance. C. in order that the center of gravity of the aircraft is located after the focus, D. is to lose weight. 42. () the main characteristics of the low and subsonic aircraft configuration (A) A.The length of the wing is usually larger than the length of the fuselage B. the fuselage and the cockpit are integrated into the fuselage. C. fuselage is rather thin and D. is not the thrust ratio of 43. jet engines. A. engine thrust ratio and engine structure weight ratio.
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B.The ratio of thrust to engine structural weight in the maximum working state of an engine. The ratio between thrust and engine weight of C. engine under the maximum working state. The ratio of thrust to aircraft structure weight of the D. engine under the maximum working state. 44. the “three high” of the turbofan engine means (C). 130 A. high use rate, high compression ratio, high fuel consumption rate B. high push weight ratio, high turbocharging ratio, high turbo temperature C. high turbocharging ratio, high culvert ratio, high turbine front temperature D. high push weight ratio, high culvert ratio, high engine thrust, realized from 1950s, realizedSince the supersonic flight, fighter development has gone through generations. A. three B. four C. five D. six 46. the type of landing gear commonly used by jet planes is (B). 157@1 A. post three point B. first three point C. bicycle type D buoy 47. lighter than airThe aircraft with a specific proportion of air will enter the aircraft earlier. China has long been known as “Kong Ming Deng” that can be launched as a liaison signal in the war. This is the embryonic form of modern times. C8@ A.10 in the early part of the century, the hot air balloon at the beginning of the B.12 century in the early C.10 century.In the early D.12 century, the lowest level in the airship 48. atmosphere was in which the air temperature increased with height (A) A. troposphere, reduced the B. troposphere, increased the C. stratosphere, reduced the D. stratosphere, and increased the movement of air in the vertical direction in the 49. stratosphere.Therefore, although the air flow 49 A. is unstable but the visibility is better B. is unstable and the visibility is poor C. is more stable and the visibility is better D. is more stable but the visibility is less than 50. for compressible gas, when the pressure increases, the temperature (A) 53 A. increases B. to decrease C.The invariant D. is not sure that the 51. aircraft adopts winglets to reduce _d____. 89@15 A. viscous friction resistance B. viscous friction resistance C. interference resistance D. induced resistance 52. before the stall, the attack angle increases, then lift (C) A. decreases.B. constant C. increased D. does not necessarily flow when the 53. air flows in the contraction pipe. A. increases B., decreases C. decreases with decreasing flow velocity and D. remains unchanged. 54. pressure difference resistance is related to factors. (A) A. aircraft shape B. flightThe main reason for the air separation into the two part of the combustion chamber is ___d__. The main reason for the 55. airflow into the combustion chamber is D. ___d__. A. makes air flow more open. B. and fuel mix more fully. C. increases thrust. D. cooling flame tube 56. uses variable sweep wing.The main purpose is (C) A. to improve the critical Maher number B. to improve the low speed performance C., increase the lift D. and reduce the area of the wing area 57..
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A.Viscous friction resistance B. viscous pressure difference resistance C. interference resistance D. induced resistance 58.. When the plane reaches the theoretical static lift limit, the plane at this time (A) A. horizontal velocity is zero B. vertical rise to zero C. and the vertical descent velocity of D. is zero and low subsonic speed of D..Compared to the aircraft, the supersonic airplanes are larger than A. B. smaller C. and almost D. 60., when the maximum speed point on the wing surface is equal to 1, the corresponding stream number (A) A. is greater than 1 B. or equal to 1 C. equal to 1 D. less than 1 D.161. when supersonic airflow flows through the shock wave, the ____b_ of the airstream will decrease. 66 A. density B. speed C. temperature D. pressure 62. driver control lever pushes forward, deflects, and the aircraft produces changes. (A) 107 A. elevator, pitching the B. rudder, heading the C. aileron, rolling D. flaps, and rising to use the flap for d83 A. to change the pitching state B. to reduce the resistance C. to change the yaw state D. and increase the lift 64. triangle wing aircraft suitable for ultrasoundThe main reason for the fast flight is ___B___. 94@5 A. wing with smaller relative thickness B. wing rear sweep angle large C. wing weight D. wing low speed performance good 65. axis flow compressor rectifying ring is A. deceleration B. booster C. adjustment airflow direction D.Speed 66. driver manipulate the driver’s driver to push forward, deflect, the plane produces __A___ changes 107 A. elevator steering rudder heading to the C. aileron rolling D. flaps up 67. turbofan engine fan is driven by which part of the ___b__. One29 A. high pressure turbine B. low pressure turbine C. motor D. air blows.
Two judgment questions
1.The world’s first stealth fighter bomber developed by the US is F-lllo (right) 2.. The British “crow” fighter is a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. (right) 3. the US SR-71 high altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft, like F-117, is also a stealth aircraft. (right)4. the French “illusions” series of fighters adopt the “duck style” layout. (right) 5. the US F-22 fighter belongs to the third generation supersonic fighter. (error) the 6. rotor’s rise and forward depend on the pull of the rotor. (wrong) 7. stealth aircraft is invisible to the human eye.Error (8.) the lift on the wing is in essence the pressure difference between the upper and lower wings of the wing. (9.) the lift of the aircraft will increase with the increase of attack angle. (error) 10. the induced drag on the wing is a resistance arising from lift. (right) the 11. shock wave is produced.The main cause of the “sound barrier”. (12.) the better the stability of the aircraft, the better its maneuverability. (error) 13. overload means that the loading of the aircraft exceeds the allowable load. The essence of the 14. lift is the pressure difference between the upper and lower wings of the wing. (right)
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The lift of an aircraft will increase with the increase of attack angle. (error) 16. in the case of certain Maher numbers, the sharp front object is formed by a normal shock wave. The role of the 17. flap is to increase the lift force and reduce the landing speed when the aircraft takes off and touchdown. (right) 18The control system adopted by the third generation fighter is a mechanical control system. The main problem caused by the 19. large swept wing is the tip stall. (20.) “overload” is a phenomenon when aircraft maneuvers. (right) 21. pairs of variable back angle wings should be at high speedSmall sweep angle is adopted, and large sweep angle is adopted at low speed. (error) 22. the plane is flying more smoothly in the stratosphere than in the troposphere. (23.) the speed of sound propagation in an object is independent of the medium of propagation. Wrong (24.) aircraft taking off wind is easier than take-off.. (25.) the leading edge swept angle is the angle between the leading edge line of the wing and the straight line perpendicular to the symmetric plane of the wing root. The main difference between the 26. rocket and the missile is that the engine used by the two is different. (error) 27. in order to ensure that the wind tunnel test results as far as possible with the actual situation of flight.There must be three similarities, namely geometric similarity, motion similarity and dynamic similarity. (28.) the shape of the aircraft is streamlined, mainly to reduce its induced drag. (error) 29. the space shuttle is an aircraft that can be reused and can take off and go vertically. (mistake) 30Helicopters can only take a vertical take-off and landing. (error) 31. the vast majority of aircraft are active in the troposphere and middle layer. The horizontal flight of the wrong 32. rotorcraft is realized by the lift component of the corresponding direction generated by the tilt of the rotor. () the degree of compression of 33. airIt is inversely proportional to the speed of sound and is directly proportional to the speed of the aircraft. (P) 34. in order to ensure that the wind tunnel test results are in accordance with the actual flight conditions as far as possible, “three similarities” must be done, that is, geometric similarity, motion similarity, and dynamic similarity. (error) 36. when the speed of the aircraft approaches the speed of soundWhen the sound waves are stacked and accumulated, it will cause shock waves to produce, and then create obstacles to the acceleration of the aircraft, which is called sound barrier because of the speed caused by the speed of sound. (37.) only when the speed of the aircraft is above 1Ma is the scope of supersonic flight. (right38. the angle of attack is the angle between the chord and the relative velocity. (misty) a thin layer of air compressed by 39. shock waves is composed of fixed air clusters. (40.) the function of the single rotor helicopter tail rotor is only to change the course of the helicopter. (mistake) 30When the rotor rotates around the rotor, each blade’s working principle is similar to the working principle of the aircraft wing. (right) the difference between the 31. balloon and the airship is that the airship has the power and the balloon has no power. (32.) streamline the shape of the aircraft, mainly to reduce interference resistance.(wrong) 33. cruising speed refers to the speed of the aircraft at the lowest fuel consumption per hour. (the wrong 34. wings can increase the lateral stability of the aircraft by using the inferior angle. (error) 35. the lift force of wing airfoil always increases with the increase of attack angle. Wrong.)

 

The first chapter introduction
1、What is air? What is space? What is the connection between Aeronautics and Astronautics? Aviation refers to the movement of manned or unmanned aircraft in the earth’s atmosphere. Space refers to manned or unmanned spacecraft in the earth’s atmosphere beyond the navigation activities, also known as space flight or space navigation. Spaceflight is different from navigationEmpty spacecraft are mainly flying in space like natural celestial bodies. However, the launch and recovery of spacecraft must pass through the atmosphere, which leads to an inevitable connection between aviation and aerospace. 2. How are the aircraft classified? According to the flight environment and working mode of the aircraft, it canThe aircraft is divided into three categories: aircraft, spacecraft, rockets and missiles. 3. How are the aircraft classified? How to subdivide all kinds of aircraft? According to the basic principle of generating lift, the aircraft can be divided into two types, that is, the aircraft flying by air static buoyancy (usually known as light to the same volume air).The aircraft, also known as the air vehicle, and the aircraft (usually called the same volume air) by the relative motion of the air with the air. (1) lighter than the same volume of air, including balloons and airships. (2) heavier than the same volume of air, including fixed wing aircraft.Aircraft (including airplanes and gliders), rotorcraft (including helicopters and rotors), flapping wing aircraft and tilting rotors. 4. How are the spacecrafts classified? How are the different types of spacecraft subdivided? The spacecraft is divided into unmanned spacecraft and manned spacecraft. According to whether it orbits the earth, the unmanned spacecraft can.It is divided into artificial earth satellites (can be divided into scientific satellites, applied satellites and technical test satellites) and space detectors (including lunar probes, planets and interplanetary probes). Manned spacecraft can be divided into manned spacecraft (including satellite manned spacecraft and lunar manned spacecraft), space station (also known as space station).) and the space shuttle. 5. Familiarity with the first and major historical events in the history of aviation development. In 1810, the British man G Kelly first proposed the basic flight principle of the air vehicle and the structure of the aircraft, which laid the modern aeronautics of the fixed wing aircraft and the rotorcraft.The theoretical basis. In aviation history, the largest contribution to gliding flight is the German O Li Lin Dahl. Since 1867, he has studied birds with his brother for more than 20 years and has made clear a lot of flight related theories, which have laid the foundation of modern aerodynamics. beautifulDr. S P Langley, a scientist in the country, has made great achievements in many fields of science and has long enjoyed a high reputation in the world scientific community. In 1896, Langley made a model of a powered aircraft, flying at a height of 150m and flying for nearly 3 hours. This is the first time in history that it is heavier than air.The aircraft has achieved stable and continuous flight, which is of great significance in the history of world aviation. At the end of the nineteenth Century, the American Wright brothers, based on the lessons of their predecessors, built a small wind tunnel to measure the lift generated by the air flow to the board, and made three gliders.In each flight test, the lift, resistance and speed are recorded in detail, and the vertical and lateral maneuverability is revised and perfected repeatedly. After that, they designed and built a piston gasoline engine with a power of 12 horsepower and a mass of 77.2kg, which was installed on third gliders.Propelling two propeller propellers, this is the “Aviator” 1. In December 17, 1903, my brother Orville lett, flying man 1, carried out the first flight test, the flight distance 36m, the space time 12s, as the control technology continued to be skilled.On the last flight by brother Wilbur Wright, the flight distance was 260m, and the time was 59S. This is the first continuous and controlled power flight in human history, which makes the dream of mankind’s desire to fly into the sky become a fact, creating a new era of human modern aviation. 6. Fighters areHow to replace it? What are the typical technical features of each generation of fighters? In October 14, 1947, the US X-1 research machine broke through the “sound barrier” for the first time. Then came the first generation of supersonic fighters, typical of the US F-86 and the Soviet Union’s MIG -1.5, MIG -19. Its main features are high subsonic or low hypersonic, backward swept wing, turbojet engine, aircraft gun and rocket projectile with force combustion chamber, and first generation air to air missile and airborne radar. In the late 1950s and early 60s, a group of two times.The speed of the speed of the emergence of fighters, they were later known as the second generation of fighters, the representative models of the United States F-104, F-4, F-5, the Soviet MIG -21, MIG -23, MIG -25, Su -17, French “phantom III” and so on. The second generation of fightingIn 1960s, large thrust new turbojet engine, monopulse radar or monopulse plus CW radar were widely used. The main weapon was aircraft gun and second generation air to air missile. The maximum flat speed was M2 1, the weight was higher and the ratio of middle and high altitude to flight performance was better. SuchSince 1970s, with the application of active control technology and thrust ratio Ratio 8 level turbofan engine, high mobility has appeared.
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The third generation fighters of the sex, such as F-15, F-16, F-18 fighters in the US, the MIG -29 in the Soviet Union, the -27 fighter in the Soviet Union, and the phantom 2000 in France. The third generation fighters usually use advanced aerodynamic fabrics such as strake wing, leading edge flap, wing body fusion, etc.It is equipped with a high subsonic maneuverability, a multi tube rapid fire aircraft gun and an advanced medium range and close range combat missile, with a pulse Doppler radar and a all-weather fire control system. The maximum flying speed is similar to the second generation, and the medium to low subsonic speed is the same.Transonic maneuverability is outstanding and has the ability of over the horizon and downward looking. The stealth aircraft appeared in 1980s, and the first practical model was the F-117 fighter bomber in the US. With the maturity of stealth technology, B-2 stealth bombers and F-2 in the US2 the stealth fighter was successfully developed in 1990s. F-22 fighters with stealth capability, supersonic cruise, stall maneuver, and supermarket distance attack become fourth with the application of the turbofan engine and advanced integrated avionics system with a weight ratio of 10 to fourth.A typical representative of a fighter. 7. What major achievements have been made in China’s aviation industry since the founding of new China? The first aircraft designed and manufactured by new China was -1, which was successfully launched in July 26, 1958. It is also the first of our own design and manufacture.A jet aircraft is a subsonic medium class trainer developed by the Shenyang aircraft manufacturer in China. In the overall design plan, the -1 aircraft embodies many innovative features. The machine broke the traditional frame of MiG fighter, and used two side intake, all metal, the first three landing gear, two seat, rear.The overall plan of the swept wing. The abandonment of the MIG nose intake layout and the two side intake layout are of great significance for the development of the two domestic fighter planes and assault planes. The first jet fighter manufactured in China was the Jones -5, and the annihilate -5 was launched in July 19, 1956.The first test flight was put into production in the same year and delivered to the army for official service. After being equipped with China’s air force, China’s first generation fighter jets, -5, immediately became a weapon of the country, with brilliant achievements. The more legendary scene took place in April 9, 1965, the four carrying of the US Navy.An air-to-air missile, a F-4B fighter with more than two times the speed of sound, took off from an aircraft carrier and invaded Hainan Island. Our army was confronted by four fighters -5. In the air battle of 17min, MAQI launched 7 “sparrow III” missiles, and the -5 has small turning radius.Strong mobility and no damage. The US Army’s Sparrow III missile has shot down its own three aircraft. The other three had two crashes while returning, and only one survived. The JW -6 fighter is China’s first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft, which was produced in 1958, 12On 17 February, the first flight was put into production in 1960 and delivered to the Chinese air force in 1964. Through the development, delivery and use of the -6 aircraft, China’s aviation industry has mastered a whole set of manufacturing technology and management experience for supersonic fighters. Second generation supersonic combat in ChinaThe machine is the annihilate -7 and the J – 8 series. The fighter -7 fighter is the first high altitude high speed fighter developed in our country. It has improved and improved obviously in aircraft performance, flight quality, lifesaving system weapon system, weapon system, airborne electronic equipment and engine.The J8 fighter is one of the largest fighters in China’s air force and naval aviation. Depending on its own technical characteristics, such as good flight performance, light and flexible, low cost, high efficiency and simple maintenance, the machine has been occupying a considerable weight in China’s naval and Air Force fighter equipment system.The position you want. The third generation supersonic fighter of our country is the series of annihilate -10 and annihilate -11. The fighter -10 fighter is the third generation fighter of our own self-made intellectual property right, the first kind of domestic fighter, which has both the capability of dual combat to the ground, and it is a single kind of fighter.Light, supersonic, all-weather, multi-purpose fighter with canard layout. The JW -11 fighter is the third generation heavy-duty fighter developed after the introduction of Russian Soviet -27SK in China. China’s modern air force main equipment of a single seat, double hair, all-weather, air superiority heavy combat.Machine. The fighter -11 has good aerodynamic shape, excellent air maneuverability and powerful middle and far distance strike capability. It is equipped with advanced airborne electronic equipment and weapon system, and can combat all weather under extremely bad weather conditions. The fighter -15 is a double, heavy, and carrier based warfare.The bucket machine is the fourth generation of fighter planes in China. Annihilate -15 is a home-made fighter developed on the basis of annihilate -11B, assembling canard and folding wing, equipped with tail hook at the tail. The JW -20 fighter is a double hair, heavy and stealth fighter designed and developed by China.The fifth generation fighter in China uses a single seat, double hair, all moving double vertical tail, adjustable DSI inlet, and canard air layout with upper anti duck wing and pointed arch strake. The JW -31 fighter is a dual, medium and stealth fighter designed and developed by China. It is the fifth generation fighter of China.The aerodynamic layout of single seat, double hair, fixed skew vertical tail, canard free and clam inlet is presented. The -31 successfully launched the first flight at 10:32 on October 31, 2012. Its successful first flight made China the world’s second and the two generation five generation prototype.Before that, only the United States developed two five generation machines, F-22 and F-35.
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The second chapter aerodynamics Foundation
1. What is the division of the earth’s atmosphere? Which layers are they divided into? What are the main features of each layer? From bottom to top according to the vertical height along the ground. (1) tropospheric characteristics: it is the one closest to the surface, and the temperature decreases with height. Weather and weather are complex and changeable, which have important influence on flight. (2) stratospheric features: there is basically no convection above the troposphere, and there is no cloud, fog, rain and snow complicated weather. (3) the characteristics of the middle layer: with the increase of altitude, the temperature drops, and the mass accounts for 1/3000 of the whole atmosphere. (4) the characteristics of the hot layer: also known as the hot layer or the warm layer.At the same time, the air molecules are decomposed into ion (5) outer layer because of short wave radiation. It is also called escape layer. The atmosphere is extremely thin and high vacuum environment. 2. what is the international standard atmosphere? What is the meaning of it? In order to provide general reference standard for atmospheric pressure and temperature, international standardThe standardization organization provides the international standard atmosphere (ISA) as a reference basis for some flight instruments and most of the performance data of aircraft. 3. what are the state parameters of a gas? What is the relationship between pressure, temperature and density when it is a complete gas? (1) pressure (2) temperature (3Density relation: P= P RT 4., what is the viscosity of airflow? How does the viscosity of the air flow change with the temperature? What is the viscosity of water and air? The nature of the resistance to the relative slip between the adjacent layers of the fluid micromass, known as the viscosity or viscosity of the fluid. Temperature rising, gasThe viscosity increases and the viscosity of the airflow increases. The water has a large stickiness. 5. according to the size of Maher number, how does the airflow speed range generally be divided? When the relative velocity between the gas and the object is less than the local sound velocity, Ma&lt, 1, the relative flow is called the sound velocity airflow. When the relative velocity is greaterThe local sound speed, Ma> 1, is called supersonic flow; when the relative airflow of a part of the body is Ma< and the other parts flow Ma> at 1, there must be a Ma=1 on a point or line on the object, then this has both the pressure velocity and the supersonic speed.Mixed flow, when the relative velocity between gas and object is Ma&gt, 5, this relative flow is called hypersonic airflow. 6. what is the principle of relativity of mechanics? What is the significance of applying it? According to theory, the laws of mechanics are equal or equivalent in all inertial systems.This is the principle of mechanics of mechanics. It is based on the principle of relativity of mechanics that the force and resistance of the real aircraft in the atmosphere are judged by the force test of the aircraft shrinkage model in the ground pneumatic equipment. 7. what is the continuity theorem of the mass of the fluid? What is its physical meaningIs it? According to the mass conservation theorem, the fluid mass in any part of the flow pipe can not be interrupted or accumulated. In the same time interval, the mass of the fluid flowing into any overflow section is necessarily equal to the fluid mass flowing out of the cross section. This is the quality continuity of the fluid flow. 8. what is a fluidThe Bernoulli equation? What is the physical meaning of its representative? The relationship between the flow pressure and the flow rate in a P+1/2 v^2=P*= constant flow tube is discussed. 10. briefly describe the flow characteristics of low-speed airflow in pipes. When the gas is from large to small section, the velocity increases and the pressure decreases.When small to large section, the velocity decreases as the pressure increases.
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11. What’s the shape of the Lawal nozzle? What is the characteristic of air flow in it? The shape of the pipeline that first contracts and expands. Under the effect of a certain pressure difference between the upper and lower reaches of the nozzle, the pressure velocity air flow to the left side of the nozzle, in the left half of the throat, gradually decreases with the section area of the pipe, and the velocity of the air flow is quickening, and the Maher numberAt the throat, the air flow accelerates to the local sound speed; in the expansion section of the right half of the throat, the flow of air is continuously accelerated as the section of the pipe increases, and becomes an ultrasonic flow. What is the effect of the 12. wind tunnel experiment? To ensure that the wind tunnel test results of the scaled model are as realistic as possible.In agreement, which aspects of the scale model must be similar to the aircraft? The wind tunnel is an artificially controlled flow of airflow. The model or object of the aircraft is placed in the channel. The air flow can be blown through the stationary model and the force of the air flow to the object can be measured. The three aspects are similar: (1) a fewHe Xiangsi (2) motion similarity (3) dynamic similarity 13. what is Reynolds number? What is his physical meaning? The ratio of the inertia force to the viscous shear force of the fluid can be used to indicate the proportion of the viscous frictional resistance in the total resistance of the model and the real aircraft. 14. super raw gasHow does the flow parameter change when the flow passes through the normal shock wave? Its velocity decreases sharply, pressure, temperature and density increase sharply, and the flow direction after wave remains unchanged. 15. what is the number of Maher on the street? The significance and methods of improving the number of Maher in the street are briefly described. The velocity of incoming flow flows to the wing at a speed less than the sound velocity.The corresponding Maher number is its critical Maher number. Methods: the local shock wave has obvious post shift significance: the aerodynamic characteristics of transonic flow are relatively gentle. 16. what is the local shock wave? When the speed of the aircraft reaches a certain value but has not reached the speed of sound, the local velocity of some parts of the aircraft isIt has reached or exceeded the speed of sound, so shock waves are first formed in these supersonic regions. The shock wave produced by the discipline inspection department on the surface of the aircraft, which has not yet reached the speed of sound, is known as “local shock wave”. 17., what is the sonic boom and thermal barrier of supersonic aircraft? What are the measures to eliminate or mitigate the effects of thermal barriersSome? The sound noise like explosion, known as the high temperature of the sound explosion, will greatly reduce the mechanical properties of the surface structure material of the aircraft, and the shape of the gas will change, which will cause the failure or failure of the surface structure of the aircraft, which is the “thermal barrier” effect during the high-speed flight.
The third chapter flight principle of aircraft
1、What is the airfoil? What is the angle of attack? (1) generally, the plane has a symmetrical plane. If the plane is parallel to the symmetrical plane to cut a knife at any position in the wing, the cut section of the wing is called the wing section or airfoil of the wing. (2) angle of attack for fixed wing aircraft, the forward direction of the wing (equivalent to airflow).The angle between the wing chord (different from the fuselage axis) is called attack angle. 2, what are the geometric parameters of airfoil and wing? (1) airfoil: thickness and curvature. (2) wing: length of development, wing root chord length, wing wing tip section chord length, wing leading edge sweep angle. 3. It is briefly described at the small positive angle of attackThe principle of generating the lift of the airfoil. It is far away from the leading edge of the airfoil, so it can maintain straight flow. When the air is close to the front edge of the airfoil, the air flow begins to turn, some flow through the upper surface of the airfoil; the other part of the wing passes through, and passes the same uniform flow state. The airflow is split up by airfoilIn the next two parts, the overall surface velocity increases and the pressure decreases. The air pressure on the lower surface is larger than that in the far front. There is a pressure difference between the upper and lower wings.
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The lift of the airfoil is formed. 4. What are the factors that affect the lift of the wing? How are they affected? (1): lift coefficient of the wing and plane area of the wing. (2) lift coefficient of the wing: the angle of attack increases and the lift coefficient increases, so the difference between the upper and lower surface air pressure is greater.The plane area of the wing: the larger the plane area of the wing, the greater the lift. 5, the types of aircraft augmentation devices and the principle of lift are discussed. Leading edge flap: it increases the lift coefficient of the wing while also increases the critical angle of attack of the wing. The rear flap: the flap of the flap and the lift. Air flow surface layer control deviceBy the active control of the airflow of the airfoil, the wing can get a great lift coefficient and critical angle of attack, and reduce the airfoil resistance, and the increase effect is obvious. 6, what kinds of resistance will the aircraft appear during flight? The influence factors and drag reduction of various resistance of low speed aircraft are illustrated.Measures。 Friction resistance: factors – viscosity coefficient of fluid, surface shape and smoothness of object, angle of attack, air flow state of surface layer, surface area of air flow contact body; measures to keep laminar flow as far as possible to reduce friction resistance. Pressure resistance: factors, attack angle, geometric shape, measuresApply – install an inverted cone behind the ellipsoid. Induced resistance: factors related to wing shape, airfoil and angle of attack; measures – increase the wing’s wing ratio, select the wing of the proper plane shape, and increase the wing tip. Interference resistance: factor — relative position of different parts of aircraftSet up; measures – pay attention to relative position, and add streamlined recorders to the connection of different parts. 7. What is the aerodynamic layout of the aircraft? Duck layout and tail – free layout. 8. What are the airfoils commonly used for supersonic aircraft wings? A swept wing, a triangular wing, and a side wing. 9. After a brief introductionMain aerodynamic characteristics of swept wing, delta wing, variable sweep wing, canard layout and tailless layout aircraft. Swept wing: increasing the swept angle of the wing can enhance the critical Maher number and reduce the shock resistance. Delta wing has the characteristics of large leading edge sweep angle, small aspect ratio and relatively small thickness.It has enough lift coefficient when flying at high angle of attack. Back swept wing: increasing the effective rear jar angle of the whole wing and decreasing the relative thick bottom, thus effectively reducing the shock resistance. Due to the presence of the main wing, the effective aspect ratio of the whole wing is increased, so the low subsonic and transonic flight can be reduced.Induced resistance. Canard layout: at the normal angle of attack, the canard will generate positive lift to maintain the balance of the aircraft. 10, make the list compare the shape and layout characteristics of low speed aircraft and supersonic aircraft.Curvature radius profile lift type low speed aircraft without large flat wing lift supersonic aircraft with smaller flat duck wing lift 11. What are aircraft takeoff and landing performance indicators? How to improve the takeoff and landing performance of the aircraft? (1) the takeoff and landing distance, takeoffGround or landing speed. (2) takeoff performance: against wind takeoff, increasing engine thrust, reducing wing load and increasing lift device. Landing performance: set up flap lift, slit wing and other lifting devices, control the wing’s attached layer, use resistance plate, deceleration parachute or thrust device, landing on the headwind. 12. Static liftWhat is the definition? The maximum speed that a plane can travel in a straight line. 13. What is the minimum horizontal flight speed, the maximum horizontal velocity and cruising speed? Maximum horizontal flight speed: when the plane is flying at a certain altitude, the maximum speed of the engine’s maximum thrust is minimum.Flat flying speed: the minimum speed that an aircraft can maintain at regular flight level at a certain altitude. Cruising speed: the speed at which the engine consumes the least fuel per kilometre.
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14、What is the maneuverability of an aircraft? How can a driver achieve his supine, yaw and roll movements? (1) refers to the response characteristics of the aircraft team manipulation. (2) deflecting the three main control surfaces by means of control equipment such as the joystick and pedals or autopilot, so that the aircraft rotates around its longitudinal axis and vertical axis.Change the flight attitude of the aircraft. 15. What is the stability of the aircraft? It indicates whether the aircraft has the ability to return to its original state after being disturbed. 16, what is the maneuverability of the aircraft? 17. In the longitudinal stability of the aircraft, whyThe focus is after the center of gravity? The farther the focus is from the center of gravity, the stronger the pitch stability. 18. What is sideslip? How does the plane recover the balance of the direction of the plane, which is affected by the wind in the course of the flight, causing the left deviation of the head to produce the yaw angle between the axis of the plane and the direction of the flight;On the vertical tail, a supplementary force is added to the left side of the vertical tail, so that it moves right and left, so that it can resume its original motion state. 19. What device does the aircraft restore its lateral balance? The vertical tail.
The fourth chapter of aero engine
1、Which types can the engine be divided into? What are the characteristics of all kinds of engines? Piston engine: an engine that transforms the heat of a fuel into a mechanical energy that drives a propeller or rotor. It does not directly produce thrust that makes the aircraft forward, but generates thrust by driving the propeller. JetEngine: the working fluid that flows into the engine at low speed is ejected at high speed after burning and directly produces the forward reaction to advance the aircraft. 2. What components do piston aero engines consist of? It is mainly composed of cylinder, piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, intake valve and exhaust valve.3, the four stroke and the process of each stroke of piston aeroengine are discussed. Intake stroke: the piston moves from the upper dead point to the lower dead point, the inlet valve opens and the exhaust valve is closed, and the atomized gas and gas mixture is drawn into the cylinder by the descending piston. Compression stroke: the piston moves from the lower dead pointTo the top dead center, the intake valve and the exhaust valve are all closed, and the mixture gas is compressed in the cylinder. When the piston reaches the upper dead point, the spark plug is ignited on the head of the cylinder. Expansion stroke: when the mixture gas is ignited, the gas with high temperature and high pressure starts to expand, and the piston moves from the top dead center to the downward dead point.The internal energy of combustion gas changes into the mechanical energy of piston movement, and is transmitted from the connecting rod to the crankshaft, thus driving the propeller to rotate. Exhaust stroke: the piston moves from the lower dead center to the upper dead point, the exhaust valve opens, and the exhaust gas after combustion is discharged from the cylinder by the piston. When the piston reaches the top dead point, the exhaust valveClose。 4, what are the criteria for measuring the performance of piston engines? Effective power, power weight ratio and fuel consumption rate of 5. What are the main performance parameters of a jet engine? Thrust, unit thrust, thrust weight ratio, unit fuel consumption rate 6, what is the thrust weight ratio and unit consumption of jet engines?Rate? Thrust to weight ratio: the ratio of engine thrust (maximum ground working state) to its structural weight. Unit fuel consumption: the amount of fuel consumed per hour per unit thrust (1N). 7, try to describe the main components of turbojet and its functions. Intake: sorting into the launchThe air flow of the machine eliminates the eddy, ensuring that the amount of air needed by the engine can be supplied under various working conditions.
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Compressor: increase the air pressure into the engine to provide high pressure air for the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the engine’s thermal cycle. Combustion chamber: the high pressure air from the compressor is mixed with the fuel and burned. Turbine: convert most of the high temperature and high pressure gas from the combustion chamber to machinery.It can rotate at high speed and generate large power output from turbine shaft. Afterburner: get a larger engine thrust tail nozzle: speed up the gas expelled from the turbine, still with a certain energy, and discharge the engine at a large speed to produce thrust. Annex system and appendixDynamic system: ensure the engine working normally; install and drive engine accessories and some aircraft accessories. 8. What are the characteristics of the structure of the turboprop engine? Most of the available energy generated by the gas generator is absorbed by the power turbine and output from the power shaft, which is used to drive the aircraft’s screw.The propeller rotates; when the propeller rotates, it moves the air to the rear, resulting in pulling force to make the aircraft forward. 9. What are the characteristics of the turbofan engine’s structure? When the air is pressurized in the fan, the exit time from the fan outlet is two strands: a low-pressure turbine that flows into the core machine and the fan, and finally by the tail jet.The tube flows through the annular passage between the core casing and the outer casing. 10. What is the fan engine? Turboprop fan engine is a gas turbine propeller fan engine that can be used for speed flight above 800km/h, or paddle fan engine.11. On what aircraft is the turboshaft engine used on? What are the characteristics of it? The turboshaft engine is used on a helicopter. Turbo shaft engine has the advantages of light weight, small volume, high power, small vibration, easy to start, easy to maintain and operate. Almost all the energy of the gas is converted into the shaft power of the turbine.Gas does not provide thrust. 12. The structural characteristics of turbojet engine, turboprop engine, turbofan engine, turboplasma fan engine and turbine shaft engine are compared. Turbojet engine: inlet, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, afterburner, tail nozzle and accessories.The movable device is composed of the auxiliary system. Turboprop engine: composed of propeller, deceleration gear, inlet, compressor, power turbine, tail nozzle, engine accessory system and accessory drive, the main structure is similar to the turbojet engine, and the difference is increased on the turbojet engine.Speed device and propeller for turboprop engine. Turbofan engine consists of fan, compressor, combustion chamber, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine and tail nozzle. The structure of a turbofan engine is similar to that of a turbojet engine. The difference is that the fan is added to it.And the low pressure turbine that drives the fan. Turboprop engine consists of intake port, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fan propeller. Turboshaft engine: by air intake, compressor, combustion chamber, gas generator turbine, power turbine (free turbine), exhaust device and internal decelerator, attachment driveIt is made up of equal parts. 13. Try to describe the working principle of the pulse engine. Why can’t it be used alone? When the aerocraft is flying at high speed, the head-on air stream enters the engine and decelerates the turbocharger and reaches a certain value, directly into the combustion chamber, and the high temperature and high pressure gas from the combustor enters the tail.The nozzle expands and accelerates backwards, resulting in reaction force. Because the ramjet does not generate thrust when it is still, it depends on other power devices to speed it up to a certain speed to work normally, so the ramjet is usually used in combination with other engines. 14. Try to describe pulsating hairThe principle of motivation. A non compressor jet engine intermittently supplied by air and fuel. When an air inlet valve is entered into the combustion chamber, the inlet valve is closed under the action of the spring, and the fuel is sprayed and ignited, and the high temperature gas after the combustion is spewed out by the nozzle at high speed, and the thrust is produced.The intake valve is sucked and the air enters the combustion chamber of the engine to repeat the above process, so the combustion and the jet are interrupted. 15. Try to describe the classification and characteristics of the rocket engine. According to the energy that forms the jet flow energy, the rocket engine can be divided into liquid rocket engine, solid rocket motor and solid rocket motor.- liquid mixed engine three types.
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Liquid rocket engine: the main advantages are high specific impulse, large thrust range, repeated start, easy to control the size of thrust, longer working time and more application in the propulsion system of spacecraft. Solid rocket motor: compared with liquid rocket engine, it saves the propellant delivery system and propellant straight.It is filled in the combustion chamber. Solid – liquid hybrid engines: the use of solid combustion and liquid oxidants, because the density of the liquid oxidizer is larger than the liquid combustion agent, so it is beneficial to improve the average specific impulse of the propellant. 16. Try to describe several kinds of combined engines. Liquid rocket – punchingMachine: the thrust of the liquid rocket engine is generated at the start of the start. When the aircraft reaches a certain speed, the entry of the punching air increases the thrust and further increases the speed of the flight. When a certain speed is reached, the ramjet is in good working condition, and the liquid rocket engine stops working at this time.The thrust is completely produced by the ramjet. Solid rocket – ramjet: because the ramjet does not work on its own, and the low speed performance is poor, solid rocket engines are required to be used as a booster. The two shared a combustor. Turbo ramjet: due to ramjet speedTherefore, turbojet engine starts first. When the turbojet works to a certain number of flying Maher numbers, the turbojet engine stops and then the ramjet starts to work. Rocket turbojet engine: turbine driven by gas generator of rocket engine, gas.The generator is actually a liquid rocket engine, which is an important part of a rocket turbine engine. The rotation of the turbine drives the compressor to make the air pressurized.
The fifth chapter of the structure of the aircraft
1、What is the general requirement for the structure of the aircraft? (1) aerodynamic requirements. (2) weight and strength and stiffness requirements. (3) the use of maintenance requirements. (4) technological and economic requirements. 2. What components and systems do the aircraft consist of? Component parts: fuselage, wing, tail, landing gear, power system: fuel system, electrical system, control system 3, plane structure in the Jizhong, Hebei ribs, stringers and skin, what are the functions of the skin respectively? Jizhong: it is the main longitudinal member, it bears all or most of the bending moment and shear force. The wing root is connected to the fuselage with a fixed joint.The Hebei ribs are divided into the common Hebei ribs and the strengthening of the Hebei ribs. The role of the common Hebei ribs is to connect the longitudinal skeleton and the skin into a whole, and transfer the aerodynamic loads from the skin and the truss to the spine, and keep the shape of the Jizhong section, and the rib of the Hebei ribs is to bear the central rib of the concentrated load. The place where there is a concentrated load is commonThe strengthening of ribbed ribs strengthens the ribs, and concentrates on the common ribs. Truss: it is made of aluminum alloy extrusion or plate bending, riveted on the inner surface of the skin, supporting the skin to improve its bearing capacity and jointly transferring the aerodynamic load to the wing. Skin: direct function is a streamlineThe outer surface of the wing is formed; the aerodynamic shape of the wing is formed and maintained; it can bear local aerodynamic forces and participate in the overall force of the wing. 4, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the first three point landing gear and the rear three point landing gear? The main advantage of the first three point landing gear is compared with the rear three point landing gear.The center of gravity, which allows for strong braking, is conducive to shortening the distance of the skating; the aircraft is easy to control and is stable in the direction of skating; the axis of the aircraft is basically parallel to the ground, which avoids the burning of the runway by the jet of the engine; the pilot’s horizon is better. Then the three point landing gear meets the front bump when it reaches the speed.Striking and strong brake, easy to reverse, so general landing, no strong braking, resulting in increased running distance; takeoff and landing manipulation difficult, sliding stability poor; in the downtime, land skidding, the fuselage upside down, thus the downward horizon is not good. The disadvantage is that the load of the front landing gear is large and the structure is constructed.Complex and heavy structure. The front wheel will cause shimmy, so the pendulum device needs to be installed. The latter three point landing gear has larger attack angle when landing, and can be used to decelerate with larger resistance and shorten the distance of running.

 

I try to elaborate on the lessons learned from the introduction to aviation, and my views on this course.
proposal
After nearly 3 months of study, I have learned some basic knowledge about Aeronautics and Astronautics, and I also have some ideas and insights in the course of Aeronautical generality. I want to share it here.
1.The aviation industry is a comprehensive industry. It is the embodiment of a country’s comprehensive industrial level, scientific research level and manufacturing level. It combines the technology and technology of new materials, new technologies and new technologies. The aviation industry is a pillar industry of our country. Now it is our airline.Therefore, it is necessary for us to get to know him. In order to expand social production, it is necessary to open up a new space of activity, from land to sea, from the atmosphere of the ocean island, to the space of the universe, which is the process of expanding the scope of human activities gradually. Aeronautics and AstronauticsIt is the product of the expansion of the atmosphere and the space of the universe. After nearly a hundred years of rapid development, aeronautics and Astronautics have become the most active and most influential field of science and technology in the twenty-first Century. The great achievements in this field symbolized the high development of human civilization and the advancement of one night National Science and technology.Level. Aeronautics and astronautics technology is highly integrated modern science and technology. Mechanics, thermodynamics, and material science are the scientific foundations of Aeronautics and Astronautics; electronic technology, automatic control technology, computer technology, jet propulsion technology and manufacturing technology play an important role in the progress of Aeronautics and Astronautics; medicine,The development of vacuum technology and cryogenic technology has promoted the development of aerospace. The development of Aeronautics and Astronautics is closely related to its military applications. The great progress made by mankind in this field has also greatly influenced the national economy and social life, and even changed the face of the world. Aerospace Science and technology have become a leadAs one of the driving forces for the development of other high and new technology, aerospace industry is still the sun industry for the construction and development of the national economy, and aerospace products are high – value-added high-tech products. The aviation industry has been developing rapidly since the Wright brothers invented the aircraft.The contributions of scientists such as brothers, sir Kelly, Otto and Li Liantai. Aviation can be divided into military and civil aviation. Military aviation is mainly used for fighting, investigating, transporting, warning, training and contacting lifesaving. The activities are mainly carried out by military aircraft, which can be divided into combat aircraft and operational support.The two major categories of aircraft. Typical combat aircraft include fighters, attackers, combat bombers, antisubmarine aircraft, tactical and strategic bombers, etc. Operational support aircraft include military transport aircraft, early warning command aircraft, electronic warfare aircraft, aerial tankers, spy planes, communication links and military trainers. In addition to fixed wingIn addition, helicopters also play a great role in ground attack, investigation, transportation, communication and liaison, search and rescue and anti submarine. It has become a modern army, especially the important weapon and equipment of the army. Civil aviation refers to the non military flight activities that are used to serve the national economy by various aircraft.It can be divided into two categories: commercial aviation and general aviation. Commercial aviation refers to commercial passenger and cargo transportation on domestic and international routes; general aviation refers to public affairs, industry, agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, geological exploration, remote sensing telemetry, public security, meteorology, environmental protection, ambulance, commuter, sports and sightseeing.The general aviation aircraft mainly consists of business aircraft, agricultural machinery, forestry machinery, private aircraft and so on. Helicopters play a unique role in offshore oil exploration, land and sea emergency rescue, short distance traffic and aerial lifting operations. Space is the aeronautical activity of spacecraft outside the earth’s atmosphere. The realization of spaceflightThe spacecraft must be overcome or rid of the earth’s gravity, or even the gravitational pull of the sun. The space industry has a civil nuclear military branch. The spacecraft for military purposes can be divided into three categories: military satellite system, anti satellite system and military manned space system. Space civilian: space physical exploration, space astronomical exploration,Satellite meteorological observation, satellite ocean observation, satellite broadcasting and communication, satellite navigation, remote sensing archaeology, space tourism and extraterrestrial life exploration. There are three kinds of aircraft: aircraft, spacecrafts, rockets and missiles. A spacecraft that flies in the atmosphere and flies outside the atmosphere.The rocket is powered by a rocket engine, and the missile is a flying weapon.
It also learned China’s aviation development and China’s contribution to aviation industry. In fact, the “Long March” series, “Shenzhou” series and “Chang’e” series are representative aviation achievements. In addition, I saw all kinds of fighters, assault planes and bombers in the classroom.The pictures and videos of fighter planes, carrier planes and so on have broadened my understanding of aircraft. Knowing all kinds of aircraft in our country, from the annihilate 5 to the annihilate 20, the strong 5, the eagle dragon, the annihilate 7, and so on, our warplanes are becoming more and more advanced, although most of them are the improved Soviet UnionBut it is also enough to show that China’s strength is constantly increasing. Aeronautics and Astronautics involve many fields, and also lead many high salary technologies. Here, I sincerely wish that people can set foot on the road to the deeper part of the universe in the near future and open up the new trend of mankind towards the universe.Chapter.
2.With the rapid development of science and technology, aeronautics and Astronautics become the leading force in science and technology. At the same time, as contemporary college students, it is also necessary to understand some cutting-edge science and technology to increase their knowledge structure. Moreover, as a student of Zhengzhou aviation academy, as an aviation academyThe students in the school should know about the development and basic knowledge of aerospace in China and the world. Through the study of the aviation generality, I not only increased the related knowledge, but I also understood a problem. Now I am actually a very poor student of knowledge. There are too many things I have ever had.I have never heard of it. There are many areas I have never touched. My knowledge is too narrow. This state should not belong to college students. I want to take the initiative to learn something that I am not interested in. I need to add fresh blood! I’m a marketing specialistIndustry students, at the very beginning, I want to ask, why do I have to learn aviation outline? What does this have to do with our profession? But what is it? It’s a lot of good to learn aviation generality. I can learn the knowledge of aviation. At the very least, my vision is more open and less in mind.A little limited. What’s wrong with this? So now I am very happy to learn this.
3.The proposal for the aviation introduction class was studied through the aviation generality. In the classroom, I watched a lot of aerial pictures that I had never seen before, so that the aircraft far away from me was near the front. Through these vivid pictures and videos, I am more aware of aviation and classroom.It is no longer the rigid classroom that teachers used to read over textbooks. But, from my point of view, the whole class is full of aviation related knowledge. As a student, we know nothing about this aspect. If we immerse ourselves in ignorance, we will be dull.The feeling of suffering. Of course, there are exceptions to this area. The more they listen, the more interesting they are. It is only a few of the students interested in it, so I hope that the teacher can add some other life to the classroom to make fun of the classroom atmosphere. In addition, for our non professional students, IIt is suggested that teachers can change teaching appropriately. You can reduce the details and increase the teaching content. Because we do not need to understand the knowledge very well, just want to add more knowledge, if you can speed up some of the handout progress, reduce the details of the analysis, orXu is more suitable for us. The above are 2 suggestions, I hope you can refer to it.
Two, the generation of supersonic fighters is explained, and the main characteristics of each generation of fighters are explained.
The main standards and typical models of modern supersonic fighter generation are: (International Standard):
The first generation: F-100 of the United States, -19 of the Soviet Union and the “super mystery” of France. The main features are the large back swept wing, the jet engine with the added force combustor, the simple photoelectric and radar sight, the main weapon with the machine gun and the rocket projectile, and the first generation of air to air missiles.The maximum flat speed is 1.3 to 1.5 Maher. This generation served as a transition between the first generation jet fighter and the M2 class fighter.
The second generation: F-4 and F-104 of the United States, -21 of MIG, MIG -23 of the Soviet Union, and mirage III of France. The main features are the large thrust new turbojet engine or the turbofan engine, the monopulse radar or the monopulse plus CW radar, in order to install the aircraft gun and the second generation of air.Air missiles are the main weapons. The maximum horizontal flight speed is M2 level, the weight is relatively high, and the flight performance is good at middle and high altitude. Among them, MiG-23 and other variable swept wing fighters were listed separately by the Soviet Union, while the West considered that they belonged to the second generation level.
The third generation: American F-15, F-16, F/A-18, the Soviet Union’s MIG -29, Su -27 and France’s “mirage” 2000. The main features are the use of a turbofan engine weighing 8 to a full height, all-weather all-weather fire control system and teletype.The longitudinal system and the advanced aerodynamic layout, such as the air to air missile and the aircraft gun, are similar to the second generation. The middle and low space subsonic and transonic mobility are prominent, and have the ability of over the sight and lower view.
The fourth generation: F-22, F-35, EF2000, RAFALE, JAS39 and Soviet Union -35 in Russia. The main features are outstanding stealth performance, supersonic cruise capability, ultra conventional mobility and agility, short take-off and landing capability (or all).Environmental combat capability), referred to as 4S. The turbofan engine, the phased array fire control radar, the stealth technology and the thrust vectorial technology are used for the 10 – one weight ratio, and the air to air missile is the main weapon after the launch. The latter are often called “Fourth Generation Fighters” because they do not possess all the characteristics.”Three generation and half supersonic fighter”.

 

 

Classification of aircraft
Author: anonymous posted: Internet access: 175
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Aircraft flight vehicle
Equipment that flies in space or outside the atmosphere. There are 3 kinds of aircraft: aircraft, spacecrafts, rockets and missiles. Aircraft flying in the atmosphere are called aeroplanes, such as balloons, gliders, airships, airplanes, helicopters, etc. They depend on the static buoyancy of the air or the relative motion of the air.The generated aerodynamic forces are flying off. Spacecrafts flying in space are called spacecrafts, such as artificial earth satellites, manned spacecraft, space probes, space shuttles, etc. They are driven by the launch vehicle to obtain the necessary speed to enter space, and then perform the orbital motion under the action of gravitation. Rockets are launched with rocketThe motive powered aircraft can fly in the atmosphere or outside the atmosphere. A missile is a controllable rocket equipped with a warhead, with ballistic missiles mainly flying outside the atmosphere and ground to air missiles and cruise missiles flying in the atmosphere.
The aircraft is divided into aircraft and spacecraft
Aerocraft
Equipment that flies in space in or out of the atmosphere.
aircraft
The flying vehicle in the atmosphere is divided into lighter than air and heavier than air.
Apparatus.
spacecraft
An aircraft that flies in outer space (outer space).
A balloon (lighter than air)
There are no propulsion devices and airless controls. An air bag and a hoist hanging under it
A basket or a pod. The balloon is filled with buoyant gas with a smaller density than air. crane
The cabin is used to multiply or place objects. Nowadays, balloons are hoisting cargo, meteorology, communications and sports.
Sports and other aspects are still in use.
Airship (lighter than air)
An aircraft equipped with a power unit and capable of controlling flight lighter than air. By the huge streamlined hull,
The pods below the hull are composed of tail and propulsion devices that are stable and controlled. Hull
The airbag is filled with buoyant gas with a smaller density than air. A pod for passenger or assembly
Load the goods. Early airships are filled with hydrogen and are easy to explode. Modern airships are safer to charge helium.
Widely used in television broadcasting, advertising, tourism, urban security, etc.
A glider (a aircraft heavier than air)
A fixed wing aircraft with no power device and heavier air. Towed by an airplane, or with a winch, a car
After the take-off and take-off, it will glide forward by the gravity of its own gravity in the direction of flight. Some slippery
A small engine is called a power glider, but its engine is only used before gliding.
Get the initial speed. Modern gliders are mainly used in sports.
Aircraft (aircraft heavier than air)
The pulling force / thrust generated by the power plant is generated by the fixed wing.
An air – borne aircraft flying in the atmosphere.
A helicopter (aircraft heavier than air)
The power driven rotor is the main source of lift, and it can lift vertically and heavier than air.
Apparatus.
A rotorcraft (a aircraft heavier than air)
Using the relative airflow during forward flight, rotor rotates to generate lift rotor. Its front
The force is provided by the power device. It can not go up vertically or hovering in the air. It must slide.
It takes off to run faster. Today is generally used for browsing and sports activities.
“ The flying speed of the pine hawk rotorcraft can reach 185 km / h. The cruising speed is 130 km / h. Photo: Photo:Groen Brothers Aviation (Inc), Groen Brothers Aviation Inc
【1】 【2】 【3】 【4】 【5】
SparrowHawk, also known as pine nut hawk, is a small bird of prey. Sex machine
The police, flying quickly, are also good at gliding. Us Groen Brothers Aviation Inc uses “sparrow hawk”
Appropriately named their own research and development of a rotorcraft.
The Groen Brothers Aviation Inc showed the “pine finch” at the Eleventh Beijing international aviation exhibition.
Eagle “rotary wing machine. The machine is the most secure and inexpensive high performance light screw on the market.
A propeller aircraft. *
Small and simple rotary wing machine
1
Picture:
Picture:
Small and simple rotary wing machine

 

Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (1): 75 points have been achieved.
1
The scientists who realized the “flying carpet” in the ancient Greek myth “the Arabian Nights” are (()) scientists.
A、Germany
B、Russia
C、China
D、My answer in the United States: D score: 25 points
2
The distance between the earth and the moon is ().
A、38 Ten thousand kilometers
B、50 Ten thousand kilometers
C、1 Light year
D、2 My answer in the light year: A score: 25 points
3
China first experimented with rockets and tried to use rockets as a means of transportation.
A、13 At the beginning of the century
B、14 At the beginning of the century
C、15 At the beginning of the century
D、16 My answer at the beginning of the century: C score: 25 points
4
Compared with aviation, space is simpler in appearance. () my answer: X score: 0 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (two): 75 points.
1
The key technology of the Kong Ming lamp is ().
A、Quantity of heat
B、Dead weight
C、volume
D、My answer to the combustible: A score: 0 points
2
1910 In 2003, the first regular air route in aviation history was established by using rigid airships as transport vehicles.
A、China
B、U.S.A
C、France
D、My answer to Germany: D score: 25 points
3
The modern turbine engine has the same working principle as the lantern. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Hard and soft flying planes have skeletons. My answer: X score: 25 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (three): 100 points.
1
The speed of the first piston engine is hourly ().
A、50 kilometre
B、100 kilometre
C、150 kilometre
D、200 Km my answer: B score: 25 points
2
The world’s first manned manned flight with heavier than air and powered driving occurs in ().
A、1903 year
B、1910 year
C、1913 year
D、1920 My answer: A score: 25 points
3
The stability of the aircraft is more important than the stability of the aircraft in terms of its aerodynamic stability. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The wind flight is beneficial to the takeoff and landing of the aircraft. My answer: X score: 25 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (four): 75 points.
1
The world’s first jet aircraft was made by ().
A、U.S.A
B、The former Soviet Union
C、Germany
D、My answer in Japan: C score: 25 points
2
Air transportation has sprang up ().
A、After World War I
B、Before the first World War
C、After the two World War
D、My answer before the two World War: C score: 0 points.
3
Optimizing the shape of the aircraft can completely eliminate shock resistance.
My answer: X score: 25 points
4
Both the world war and the two world war have promoted the rapid development of the aviation industry. My answer: the score: 25 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (five): 75 points.
1
The following () is not the launching base of China’s aerospace industry.
A、Xichang
B、Nanchang
C、Jiuquan
D、Wen Chang my answer: B score: 25 points
2
“ The reason for the elimination of the Concorde is ().
A、High oil consumption rate
B、Poor economy
C、Big noise
D、The above answer is correct. My answer is: D score: 25 points.
3
Bombers have so far not been able to mount missiles. My answer: the score: 0 points
4
When the speed of a turbine engine exceeds a certain speed, the aircraft will disintegrate. My answer: the score: 25 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (six): 75 points.
1
The main base of our “Suzhou” aircraft is ().
A、Shenyang
B、Xi’an
C、Chengdu
D、Harbin my answer: Score: 0 points
2
“ Airbus “was established ().
A、1990 year
B、1980 year
C、1970 year
D、1960 My answer: C score: 25 points
3
In the world, UAV is the main direction of future development. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Radar can monitor any aircraft at any height. My answer: X score: 25 points
Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (seven): 75 points.
1
The first manned spaceship in the history of China’s aviation industry is ().
A、Shenzhou six
B、Shenzhou five
C、Shenzhou four
D、Shenzhou three my answer: B score: 25 points
2
The earliest origin of space industry was ().
A、Japan
B、China
C、India
D、My answer in the United States: B score: 25 points
3
In the history of the development of China’s aviation industry, the speed and power of spaceships can be artificially built in space from Shenzhou nine spacecraft.
Influence is exerted. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Compared with aerospace, aerospace is closer to the life of ordinary people. My answer: the score: 0 points
Classification of aircraft (1): 75 points achieved.
1
Civil aircraft are usually () aircraft.
A、Wing aircraft
B、Wing aircraft
C、Rotor aircraft
D、No wing plane my answer: A score: 25 points
2
Lighter than air depends on () what floats in the air.
A、Mechanical power
B、Propeller and air resistance
C、buoyancy
D、All the answers are correct
My answer: C score: 25 points
3
The flight power depends on the air vehicle. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The space shuttle does not rely on the principle of aviation in the course of flight. My answer: the score: 0 points
Classification of aircraft (two) completed: 75 points
1
The symbol of the civil aircraft in China is numbered ()
A、A
B、B
C、C
D、R My answer: B score: 25 points
2
The registration sign of the aircraft must be ().
A、Letter
B、number
C、A combination of letters and numbers
D、The above answer is correct. My answer is: C score: 0 points.
3
The following () does not belong to the classification of wings according to the plane shape.
A、Flat wing
B、Back wing
C、Inclined wing
D、My answer to the wing: D score: 25 points
4
The classification of aircraft can be carried out according to the components that constitute the aircraft. My answer: 25
Classification of Walker (three) completed: 75 points
1
The following () has the greatest impact on the flight of the glider.
A、Aircraft material
B、Air flow
C、Aircraft volume
D、Air temperature my answer: B score: 25 points
2
F-117 The shape of the stealth aircraft is restricted by its ().
A、Stealth material
B、Flight power
C、Flight speed
D、Flight height my answer: A score: 25 points
3
The shape of an aircraft is much more complicated than that of a spacecraft. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The angle of landing gear and fuselage of multi point landing gear is larger than that of landing gear and fuselage when landing. My answer:
Classification of Walker (four) completed: 75 points
1
The following () is not the type of the helicopter’s propeller.
A、Three rotor column
B、Single rotor
C、Double rotor coaxe
D、Double rotor cross my answer: A score: 25 points.
2
F-22“The Raptors’ fighters belong to () design and manufacture.
A、China
B、Russia
C、U.S.A
D、My answer to France: C score: 25 points
3
With the development of fighter planes, the ground air defense facilities should also develop, otherwise the prevention and control facilities will lose their original meaning. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The propeller of a helicopter can only rotate in a fixed plane. My answer:
The basic principles of aircraft flight (1): 100 points have been achieved.
1
From the point of view of Bernoulli principle, if the density of fluid is constant, the method of improving aircraft speed is ().
A、Increase the pressure of fluid
B、Reducing the pressure of the fluid
C、Improve the cross section area of the aircraft
D、To reduce the cross-sectional area of aircraft, my answer is: D score: 25 points.
2
The speed of the aircraft is equal to () when the aircraft’s flight is flying at low speed.
A、Subsonic speed
B、Sonic speed
C、Supersonic speed
D、Option A or option B my answer: A score: 25 points.
3
If the fluid is incompressible, the cross-sectional area of the fluid is inversely proportional to the velocity of the fluid. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Wingspan refers to the length of an aircraft wing. My answer: X
The basic principle of aircraft flight (two) has achieved 100 points.
1
The obvious difference between the -15 aircraft and other aircraft in appearance is (()).
A、wing
B、Landing gear
C、Fuselage
D、Tires my answer: B score: 25 points
2
The lift of an aircraft is proportional to ().
A、The length of the wing
B、The width of the wing
C、The volume of the wing
D、The area of wing area: my answer: D score: 25 points.
3
There is only lift but no resistance in aerodynamics. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
When the aircraft stall at the stall angle of attack, the aircraft will shake. My answer:
The basic principle of aircraft flight (three) has achieved 100 points.
1
The aircraft fuselage of the cone is intended to ().
A、Reducing aircraft’s flight resistance
B、Reduce the weight of the aircraft
C、Improve the safety of the aircraft
D、Improving the utilization of aircraft interior space: my answer: A score: 25 points.
2
When aircraft supersonic flight, Maher number M ()
A、Equal to 0.75
B、Less than 1
C、Equal to 1
D、More than 1 my answer: D score: 25 points
3
The best way to reduce aircraft frictional resistance is to adjust the turning point. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Aerodynamic forces are generated by the relative movement of air and aircraft wings. My answer:
The basic principle of aircraft flight (four) has achieved 100 points.
1
The following () is one of the key factors in designing aircraft.
A、speed
B、stability
C、Internal space
D、Wing length my answer: B score: 25 points
2
If the wave front of the shock wave and the direction of flight speed of the aircraft are, the shock is called the normal shock wave.
A、Parallel
B、vertical
C、coincidence
D、My answer: B score: 25 points
3
The smaller the critical M number of the aircraft is, the more favorable for the flight of the aircraft. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
The shock wave during the flight of aircraft will cause great resistance to the flight of aircraft. My answer:
Aircraft stability and maneuvering (1): 75 points have been achieved.
1
The aircraft relies mainly on () to ensure the stability of its direction.
A、wing
B、Vertical tail
C、Engine
D、Navigator my answer: A score: 0 points
2
()The formation of aircraft plays a decisive role in flight.
A、lift
B、resistance
C、gravity
D、My answer to the resultant force of lift and gravity: A score: 25 points.
3
The main factors to ensure the lateral stability of aircraft are ().
A、Wing reverse angle
B、Wing sweep angle
C、Vertical tail
D、The above answer is correct. My answer is: D score: 25 points.
4
When the aircraft is cruising, the gravity of the aircraft is equal to the lift force, and the thrust of the aircraft is equal to the resistance. My answer:
Aircraft stability and maneuvering (two) has achieved 100 points.
1
The aircraft () determines the course of the plane.
A、fuel
B、deadweight
C、Maximum flight speed
D、Cruising speed my answer: D score: 25 points
2
In the final stage of aircraft design, if the aircraft is still unstable, the remedial measures will be made without changing the design.
A、Add automatic control system
B、Adding a remote control system
C、Add monitoring system
D、Add emergency brake system my answer: A score: 25 points.
3
The direction of the flight depends entirely on the pilot, not the result of the designer’s design. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
Generally speaking, the maneuverability of aircraft is inversely proportional to its stability. My answer:
Aircraft stability and maneuvering (three) has achieved 75 points.
1
For wind tunnels used in aircraft tests, the key factors do not include ().
A、Airflow velocity
B、Wind tunnel space
C、Model plane
D、Driving my answer: D score: 0 points
2
The characteristics of the supersonic wind tunnel test are ().
A、The test time is very short
B、The noise is very large
C、High requirements for model quality
D、Option A and option B my answer: D score: 25 points.
3
The indexes for evaluating the endurance of the voyage are the course and the time of navigation. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Cruising speed refers to the speed of the aircraft when the fuel consumption per kilometer is minimum. My answer:
The structure of aircraft (1) has achieved: 100 points.
1
The main function of an aircraft wing is ().
A、Aesthetic effect
B、Bear resistance
C、Keep the plane in balance
D、My answer to the lift: D score: 25 points
2
The lift of an airplane is borne by the aircraft.
A、volume
B、structure
C、weight
D、Surface area my answer: B score: 25 points
3
The following () is not part of the wing structure of the beam type aircraft.
A、rivet
B、Wing beam
C、Wing rib
D、My answer to the wall: A score: 25 points
4
The function of the stringer in the wing structure is to increase the aesthetic effect of the wing. My answer: X
Aircraft structure (two) has achieved 75 points.
1
The following () is not part of the truss type fuselage.
A、Septum armature
B、Truss beam
C、Truss rib
D、My answer: C score: 25 points
2
The airfoil sealing performance of the following () is better.
A、Frame structure
B、Beam structure
C、Single block structure
D、Integral panel type answer: D score: 0 points.
3
The material in the beam wing structure is usually ().
A、Hard aluminum sheet
B、Aluminum alloy sheet
C、Hard titanium plate
D、Titanium alloy plate my answer: A score: 25 points.
4
From the point of view of weight, the number of wing ribs must be reduced under the premise of ensuring the strength of the wings. My answer:
Aircraft structure (three) has achieved 75 points.
1
The design of () directly affects the take-off and landing performance of the aircraft.
A、Tail
B、Landing gear
C、Fuselage
D、Wing my answer: D score: 25 points
2
The fuselage of aircraft is divided into upper and lower structures by means of () structure.
A、floor
B、beam
C、Truss beam
D、Pillar my answer: B score: 0 points
3
When the aircraft is controlled by a negative force, the larger the sweep angle is, the better the longitudinal stability of the aircraft is. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
The increase in aircraft lift within the priority range is conducive to take-off. My answer:
Aircraft structure (four) has achieved 75 points.
1
The landing gear is usually used ().
A、Low speed aircraft
B、High speed aircraft
C、civil aircraft
D、Military aircraft my answer: B score: 0 points
2
The following () is a sliding device for a water plane.
A、Wheel
B、Buoy
C、Skid
D、Roll my answer: B score: 25 points
3
The higher the strength of the aircraft is in the design of the fuselage. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
The more control planes the plane has, the more missions the aircraft can accomplish. My answer:
The helicopter (I) has completed the achievement: 75 points
1
It is () to prevent the helicopter’s single paddle rolling.
A、Fuselage
B、wing
C、Tail rotor
D、Fan leaves my answer: D score: 0 points
2
The first automatic gyro machine is made by ().
A、Germany
B、Spain
C、Japan
D、My answer in the United States: B score: 25 points
3
The rotorcraft is designed and manufactured from the angle of lightening the aircraft’s own weight. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
Takeoff and landing of armed helicopters are much simpler than fixed wing aircraft. My answer:
The helicopter (two) has completed the result: 75 points
1
The front and rear flight of the helicopter is controlled by () adjusting the direction of the rotor shaft.
A、Navigation system
B、Rudder
C、Control rod
D、The above answer is correct. My answer is: D score: 0 points.
2
Below () the airborne equipment that does not belong to the helicopter.
A、An electric appliance
B、Navigation
C、Rudder
D、Communication and electronic countermeasures my answer: C score: 25 points.
3
At present, there is no () type airfoil in practice.
A、articulated
B、Turbo
C、Bearingless
D、Seesaw board my answer: A score: 25 points
4
At present, the helicopter has reached the level of shock wave. My answer: X
The helicopter (three) has completed the result: 75 points
1
The original idea of aircraft design is ().
A、Sufficient security
B、Enough power
C、Sufficient stability
D、Enough fuel consumption. My answer: C score: 0 points.
2
The advantage of the cross type helicopter is ().
A、Small positive resistance
B、Transmission system is simple
C、Strong balance performance
D、High security answer: A score: 25 points
3
The closer the center of gravity of an aircraft is, the better it will take off and land. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
The tail rotor can successfully control any helicopter in any state. My answer: X
The unmanned aerial vehicle (one) has completed the achievement: 75 points
1
The first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in the world was completed by the control system and automatic navigation.
A、Autopilot unmanned aerial vehicle
B、“Predator “
C、Pulse jet engine aircraft
D、“Global Hawk “my answer: C score: 25 points
2
The advanced stage of UAV development is ().
A、Intelligentization
B、Fighter
C、Stealth
D、High speed my answer: A score: 0 points
3
The earliest UAV was a radio telecontrol aircraft. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
So far, the technical difficulties of converting active bombers to unmanned bombers have not yet been solved. My answer: X
The unmanned aerial vehicle (two) has completed the achievement: 100 points
1
The UAV receives the signal and executes the command through the () to operate the UAV.
A、Automatic navigator
B、Autopilot
C、Central control system
D、Signal receiving system my answer: B score: 25 points.
2
The shortcoming of remote flight is ().
A、Complicate the design of unmanned aerial vehicles
B、Improve the manufacturing cost of UAV
C、Reduce the flexibility of UAV tactics
D、My answer to bad EMI is D score: 25 points.
3
The beacon can increase the range of radar detection. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Air conditioning, oxygen supply and turbocharging equipment are also necessary for UAVs. My answer: X
The unmanned aerial vehicle (three) has completed the achievement: 75 points
1
The takeoff method of the UAV is ().
A、Launch vehicle
B、Rocket booster
C、Ground takeoff
D、Option A and option B my answer: C score: 0 points.
2
Inertial navigation platform obtains its speed and position by sensing the aircraft’s ().
A、acceleration
B、displacement
C、Instantaneous velocity
D、Flight height my answer: A score: 25 points
3
At present, the more navigation used by astronauts is strapdown inertial navigation. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
The UAV with automatic control does not need remote control on the ground. My answer:
Man machine (four) has completed the achievement: 100 points
1
The landing of the UAVs can be made by the landing of the air cushion.
A、Muddy land
B、Ice and snow
C、Surface of the water
D、The above answer is correct. My answer is: D score: 33.3 points.
2
At present, UAV can not be used for combat. My answer is: Score: 33.3 points.
3
The landing of the UAV is more complex than the takeoff. My answer:
Aerospace Vehicle (1) has achieved 100 points.
1
Objects must fly enough to fly away from the earth.
A、quality
B、temperature
C、momentum
D、Speed of my answer: D score: 25 points
2
“ “Out of speed” means ().
A、First cosmic velocity
B、Second cosmic velocity
C、Third cosmic velocity
D、Cosmic velocity
My answer: B score: 25 points
3
The first man-made satellite of mankind was launched into space in 1957 and opened the door for mankind to enter the universe.
A、The former Soviet Union
B、U.S.A
C、China
D、My answer to Germany: A score: 25 points
4
The orbit of all planets is a parabola. My answer: X
Aerospace Vehicle (two) has achieved 100 points.
1
The following () is not a part of the satellite.
A、The noumenon of the satellite
B、power supply system
C、Shock absorption system
D、Attitude control system my answer: C score: 25 points.
2
Satellites used to survey and study the natural resources of the earth are ().
A、Communication satellite
B、meteorological satellite
C、Investigation satellite
D、Resource satellite my answer: D score: 25 points
3
Satellites do not need the fuel power of aircraft or automobiles to operate outside the atmosphere for a long time. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The satellite is not testable. My answer: X
Aerospace Vehicle (three) has achieved 75 points.
1
The fuel of the Long March 3 launch vehicle engine is ().
A、Liquified natural gas
B、Liquefied hydrogen
C、Liquefied carbon monoxide
D、The mixture of liquefied hydrogen and carbon monoxide: my answer: D score: 0 points.
2
The best satellite launch base in the world is ().
A、Kuru
B、Jiuquan
C、Xichang
D、Taiyuan my answer: A score: 25 points
3
It is possible for the satellite to rebound when the satellite enters the air with higher density from the low density air. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
The recovery of satellites is the same as that of spacecraft recovery. My answer:
Aerospace Vehicle (four) has achieved 100 points.
1
When the US space shuttle returned to earth, it ended up in a crash.
A、Endeavour
B、atlantis
C、discovery
D、My answer to the Challenger: D score: 25 points
2
The former Soviet Union successfully launched the manned spaceship “East Fang” for the first time.
A、1932 year
B、1947 year
C、1961 year
D、1983 My answer: C score: 25 points
3
Today’s aeronautics technology has not yet solved the technical difficulties of the aircraft being unable to get close to the sun. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
China does not yet have the capability to build a space station. My answer: X
The flight power plant (1) has achieved 100 points.
1
The fuel of a piston type aero engine is ().
A、gasoline
B、Liquified natural gas
C、Liquefied hydrogen
D、My answer to liquefaction of carbon monoxide: A score: 25 points.
2
The power source of an electric rocket engine can not come from.
A、nuclear energy
B、Bioenergy
C、chemical energy
D、Solar my answer: B score: 25 points
3
The biggest advantage of liquid rocket engine is its very light weight. My answer: X score: 25 points
4
Solid or liquid aviation fuels do not require oxygen for combustion. My answer:
The action device (two) has achieved 75 points.
1
The fuel consumption rate of the turbine engine is very high when the speed of the aircraft is high.
A、Greater than supersonic speed
B、Equal to supersonic speed
C、Less supersonic than supersonic
D、My answer is less than subsonic: C score: 25 points.
2
Pilots perform afterburner operations in the following () situations.
A、acceleration
B、land
C、take off
D、Emergency brake my answer: A score: 0 points
3
Pulsating jet engines are characterized by inadequate combustion and low energy utilization. My answer: the score: 25 points
4
Within a certain range, the larger the bypass ratio of a turbine engine is, the lower the fuel consumption rate of the turbine engine.
My answer:

 

Aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (I) has been completed
1 The distance between the earth and the moon is ().
A、38 Ten thousand kilometers
B、50 Ten thousand kilometers
C、1 Light year
D、2 The correct answer to the light year: A
2 Aeronautics is simpler in appearance than aerospace.
Correct answer:
3 Birds flying freely in the air have stirred up human illusions about aerospace.
Correct answer: X
4 China first experimented with rockets and tried to use rockets as a means of transportation.
A、13 At the beginning of the century
B、14 At the beginning of the century
C、15 At the beginning of the century
D、16 The right answer at the beginning of the century: C
5 The scientists who realized the “flying carpet” in the ancient Greek myth “the Arabian Nights” are (()) scientists.
A、Germany
B、Russia
C、China
D、The correct answer: D’s introduction to aerospace (two) has been completed.
1 The oldest vehicle is ().
A、aircraft
B、Kite
C、rocket
D、Spacecraft
The right answer: B
2 The modern turbine engine has the same working principle as the lantern.
Correct answer:
3 The key technology of the Kong Ming lamp is ().
A、Quantity of heat
B、Dead weight
C、volume
D、Correct answers to combustibles: B
41910 In 2003, the first regular air route in aviation history was established by using rigid airships as transport vehicles.
A、China
B、U.S.A
C、France
D、The correct answer to Germany: D
5 Hard and soft flying planes have skeletons.
Correct answer: X
The aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (three) has been completed
1 The stability of the aircraft is more important than the stability of the aircraft in terms of its aerodynamic stability.
Correct answer:
2 The world’s first manned manned flight with heavier than air and powered driving occurs in ().
A、1903 year
B、1910 year
C、1913 year
D、1920 The correct answer to the year: A
3 The wind flight is beneficial to the takeoff and landing of the aircraft.
Correct answer: X
4 The speed of the first piston engine is hourly ().
A、50 kilometre
B、100 kilometre
C、150 kilometre
D、200 The correct answer to the kilometer: B
5 In the first World War, the wings of the aircraft were ().
A、Four wing
B、Three wing
C、Both wings
D、One wing correct answer: C
The aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (four) has been completed
1 Air transportation has sprang up ().
A、After World War I
B、Before the first World War
C、After the two World War
D、The right answer before the two World War: A
2 Both the world war and the two world war have promoted the rapid development of the aviation industry.
Correct answer:
3 Optimizing the shape of the aircraft can completely eliminate shock resistance.
Correct answer: X
4 The world’s first jet aircraft was made by ().
A、U.S.A
B、The former Soviet Union
C、Germany
D、Japan’s correct answer: C
5 The second country to open up regular jet flights is ().
A、China
B、Britain
C、France
D、The correct answer to the former Soviet Union: D
The aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (five) has been completed
1 When the speed of a turbine engine exceeds a certain speed, the aircraft will disintegrate.
Correct answer:
2“The reason for the elimination of the Concorde is ().
A、High oil consumption rate
B、Poor economy
C、Big noise
D、All the answers are correct and correct: D
3 China made the first aircraft in ().
A、1954 year
B、1960 year
C、1964 year
D、1970 The correct answer to the year: A
4 Bombers have so far not been able to mount missiles.
Correct answer: X
5 The following () is not the launching base of China’s aerospace industry.
A、Xichang
B、Nanchang
C、Jiuquan
D、The correct answer to Wenchang: B
The aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (six) has been completed
1 Radar can monitor any aircraft at any height.
Correct answer: X
2 The main base of our “Suzhou” aircraft is ().
A、Shenyang
B、Xi’an
C、Chengdu
D、The correct answer from Harbin: A
3 The following () type aircraft is China’s advanced trainer.
A、“ Transport -8 “
B、“ Bombardment -6 “
C、“Falcons “
D、“ The correct answer to the fighter -10: C
4“Airbus “was established ().
A、1990 year
B、1980 year
C、1970 year
D、1960 The correct answer to the year: C
5 In the world, UAV is the main direction of future development.
Correct answer:
The aeronautics and Astronautics Introduction (seven) has been completed
1 The earliest origin of space industry was ().
A、Japan
B、China
C、India
D、U.S.A
The right answer: B
2 The first manned spaceship in the history of China’s aviation industry is ().
A、Shenzhou six
B、Shenzhou five
C、Shenzhou four
D、The correct answer to Shenzhou three: B
3 In the history of the development of China’s aviation industry, from the Shenzhou nine spacecraft, artificial space can affect the speed and direction of spacecraft. Correct answer:
4 China’s first lunar probe, Chang’e 1, was launched at the satellite launch center in 2007.
A、Taiyuan
B、Jiuquan
C、God of Literature
D、The correct answer to Xichang: D
5 Compared with aerospace, aerospace is closer to the life of ordinary people.
Correct answer: X
Classification of aircraft (1) has been completed
1 The flight power depends on the air vehicle.
Correct answer:
2 Civil aircraft are usually () aircraft.
A、Wing aircraft
B、Wing aircraft
C、Rotor aircraft
D、The correct answer to the wing – free aircraft: A
3 The space shuttle does not rely on the principle of aviation in the course of flight.
Correct answer: X
4 Lighter than air depends on () what floats in the air.
A、Mechanical power
B、Propeller and air resistance
C、buoyancy
D、All the answers are correct and correct: C
5 The power of the helicopter comes from ().
A、compressed air
B、Battery
C、Fuel
D、The correct answer of propeller: classification of D aircraft (two) has been completed.
1 The classification of aircraft can be carried out according to the components that constitute the aircraft.
Correct answer:
2 The following () does not belong to the classification of wings according to the plane shape.
A、Flat wing
B、Back wing
C、Inclined wing
D、The right answer to the wing of the umbrella: D
3 In the aerospace industry, there are still no planes to take off on the surface.
Correct answer: X
4 The registration sign of the aircraft must be ().
A、Letter
B、number
C、A combination of letters and numbers
D、All the answers are correct and correct: B
5 The symbol of the civil aircraft in China is numbered ()
A、A
B、B
C、C
D、R The right answer: B
1 The aircraft of the following () type is relatively rare.
A、delta wing
B、Inclined wing
C、Upper wing
D、The right answer to the wing of the umbrella: D
2 The shape of an aircraft is much more complicated than that of a spacecraft.
Correct answer:
3F-117 The shape of the stealth aircraft is restricted by its ().
A、Stealth material
B、Flight power
C、Flight speed
D、The correct answer to flight height: A
4 The angle of landing gear and fuselage of multi point landing gear is larger than that of landing gear and fuselage when landing.
Correct answer: X
5 The following () has the greatest impact on the flight of the glider.
A、Aircraft material
B、Air flow
C、Aircraft volume
D、Air temperature correct answer: B aircraft classification (four) has been completed.
1 The propeller of a helicopter can only rotate in a fixed plane.
Correct answer: X
2 The following () is not the type of the helicopter’s propeller.
A、Three rotor column
B、Single rotor
C、Double rotor coaxe
D、Correct answer to double rotor: A
3F-22“The Raptors’ fighters belong to () design and manufacture.
A、China
B、Russia
C、U.S.A
D、The right answer in France: C
4 Below () the aircraft is a supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft
A、B-2
B、B-52
C、SR-21
D、A-6 The right answer: C
5 With the development of fighter planes, the ground air defense facilities should also develop, otherwise the prevention and control facilities will lose their original meaning.
Correct answer:
The basic principles of aircraft flight (I) have been completed
1 The speed of the aircraft is equal to () when the aircraft’s flight is flying at low speed.
A、Subsonic speed
B、Sonic speed
C、Supersonic speed
D、Option A or option B correct answer: A
2 If the fluid is incompressible, the cross-sectional area of the fluid is inversely proportional to the velocity of the fluid.
Correct answer:
3 From the point of view of Bernoulli principle, if the density of fluid is constant, the method of improving aircraft speed is ().
A、Increase the pressure of fluid
B、Reducing the pressure of the fluid
C、Improve the cross section area of the aircraft
D、The correct answer to the plane’s cross section area: D
4 Wingspan refers to the length of an aircraft wing.
Correct answer: X
5 The following () parameters that do not belong to the wing of the aircraft.
A、Angle of attack
B、Metaphysic line
C、elevation
D、The root answer is the correct answer: the basic principle of C aircraft flight (two) has been completed.
1 There is only lift but no resistance in aerodynamics.
Correct answer: X
2 The lift of an aircraft is proportional to ().
A、The length of the wing
B、The width of the wing
C、The volume of the wing
D、The correct answer to the area of the wing: D
3 When the aircraft stall at the stall angle of attack, the aircraft will shake.
Correct answer:
4 The obvious difference between the -15 aircraft and other aircraft in appearance is (()).
A、wing
B、Landing gear
C、Fuselage
D、Correct tire answer: B
5 The key parameter of aircraft design is ().
A、Sweep angle
B、Stall angle of attack
C、Upper and lower reverse angle
D、The root answer is the correct answer: the basic principle of B aircraft flight (three) has been completed.
1 Aerodynamic forces are generated by the relative movement of air and aircraft wings.
Correct answer:
2 The best way to reduce aircraft frictional resistance is to adjust the turning point.
Correct answer:
3 The aircraft fuselage of the cone is intended to ().
A、Reducing aircraft’s flight resistance
B、Reduce the weight of the aircraft
C、Improve the safety of the aircraft
D、The correct answer to increase the utilization rate of aircraft internal space is A
4 When the wing shape is closer to (), the induced drag of the aircraft will be smaller.
A、Hyperbola
B、parabola
C、Ellipse
D、Correct answer to the circle: C
5 When aircraft supersonic flight, Maher number M ()
A、Equal to 0.75
B、Less than 1
C、Equal to 1
D、Greater than 1, the correct answer: D, the basic principle of aircraft flight (four) has been completed.
1 When the disturbance source is stationary, the Maher number M is equal to ().
A、0.75
B、-1
C、0
D、1 The right answer: C
2 The shock wave during the flight of aircraft will cause great resistance to the flight of aircraft.
Correct answer:
3 If the wave front of the shock wave and the direction of flight speed of the aircraft are, the shock is called the normal shock wave.
A、Parallel
B、vertical
C、coincidence
D、Correct answer: B
4 The smaller the critical M number of the aircraft is, the more favorable for the flight of the aircraft.
Correct answer: X
5 The following () is one of the key factors in designing aircraft.
A、speed
B、stability
C、Internal space
D、The correct answer to the length of the wing: B
The stability and manipulation of the aircraft (1) has been completed
1()The formation of aircraft plays a decisive role in flight.
A、lift
B、resistance
C、gravity
D、The correct answer to the resultant force of lift and gravity: A
2 When the aircraft is cruising, the gravity of the aircraft is equal to the lift force, and the thrust of the aircraft is equal to the resistance.
Correct answer:
3 The aircraft relies mainly on () to ensure the stability of its direction.
A、wing
B、Vertical tail
C、Engine
D、Correct answer to the Navigator: B
4 The main factors to ensure the lateral stability of aircraft are ().
A、Wing reverse angle
B、Wing sweep angle
C、Vertical tail
D、All the answers are correct and correct: D
5 The pilot can easily control the flight of the aircraft, so it is not necessary to ensure the stability of the aircraft in short time when designing the aircraft. Correct answer: X
The stability and control of the aircraft (two) has been completed
1 The direction of the flight depends entirely on the pilot, not the result of the designer’s design.
Correct answer: X
2 In the final stage of aircraft design, if the aircraft is still unstable, the remedial measures will be made without changing the design.
A、Add automatic control system
B、Adding a remote control system
C、Add monitoring system
D、Add the correct answer to the emergency brake system: A
3 Generally speaking, the maneuverability of aircraft is inversely proportional to its stability.
Correct answer:
4 The following () does not belong to the plane’s control surface.
A、Lift rudder
B、Rudder
C、Main wing
D、The correct answer to the aileron: C
5 The aircraft () determines the course of the plane.
A、fuel
B、deadweight
C、Maximum flight speed
D、The correct answer to cruise speed: D, aircraft stability and maneuvering (three) has been completed.
1 Cruising speed refers to the speed of the aircraft when the fuel consumption per kilometer is minimum.
Correct answer:
2 The parameter determining the circling performance of the aircraft is ().
A、Circling radius
B、Circling angular velocity
C、Overloading
D、All the answers are correct and correct: D
3 The indexes for evaluating the endurance of the voyage are the course and the time of navigation.
Correct answer:
4 For wind tunnels used in aircraft tests, the key factors do not include ().
A、Airflow velocity
B、Wind tunnel space
C、Model plane
D、The right answer: B
5 The characteristics of the supersonic wind tunnel test are ().
A、The test time is very short
B、The noise is very large
C、High requirements for model quality
D、Option A and option B correct answer: D aircraft structure (1) has been completed.
1 The lift of an airplane is borne by the aircraft.
A、volume
B、structure
C、weight
D、Correct answers to the surface area: B
2 The main function of an aircraft wing is ().
A、Aesthetic effect
B、Bear resistance
C、Keep the plane in balance
D、The correct answer to the rise of the lift: D
3 Aircraft fuel can be stored in the wing of the aircraft.
Correct answer:
4 The following () is not part of the wing structure of the beam type aircraft.
A、rivet
B、Wing beam
C、Wing rib
D、The correct answer to the vertical wall: A
5 The function of the stringer in the wing structure is to increase the aesthetic effect of the wing.
Correct answer: X
The structure of the aircraft (two) has been completed
1 From the point of view of weight, the number of wing ribs must be reduced under the premise of ensuring the strength of the wings.
Correct answer:
2 The material in the beam wing structure is usually ().
A、Hard aluminum sheet
B、Aluminum alloy sheet
C、Hard titanium plate
D、Correct answer to titanium alloy sheet: A
3 The material of the wing structure is usually linen.
Correct answer:
4 The airfoil sealing performance of the following () is better.
A、Frame structure
B、Beam structure
C、Single block structure
D、Correct answer to the whole wallboard type: C
5 The following () is not part of the truss type fuselage.
A、Septum armature
B、Truss beam
C、Truss rib
D、Stringer
The correct answer: C aircraft structure (three) has been completed.
1 The fuselage of aircraft is divided into upper and lower structures by means of () structure.
A、floor
B、beam
C、Truss beam
D、The correct answer to the pillar: A
2 The following () does not belong to the main plane of the aircraft.
A、Lift rudder
B、Main wing
C、Rudder
D、The correct answer to the aileron: B
3 The increase in aircraft lift within the priority range is conducive to take-off.
Correct answer:
4 The design of () directly affects the take-off and landing performance of the aircraft.
A、Tail
B、Landing gear
C、Fuselage
D、Correct wing answer: D
5 When the aircraft is controlled by a negative force, the larger the sweep angle is, the better the longitudinal stability of the aircraft is.
Correct answer: X
The structure of the aircraft (four) has been completed
1
The more control planes the plane has, the more missions the aircraft can accomplish. Correct answer: my answer: X
2
The landing gear is usually used ().
A、Low speed aircraft
B、High speed aircraft
C、civil aircraft
D、The correct answer to the military aircraft: A my answer: B
3
The following () is a sliding device for a water plane.
A、Wheel
B、Buoy
C、Skid
D、Roll correct answer: B my answer: B
4
Aircraft landing gear is used in emergency cases.
A、Hydraulic pressure
B、pressure
C、Electronics
D、Option A and option B correct answer: D my answer: D
5
The higher the strength of the aircraft is in the design of the fuselage. Correct answer: X
The helicopter (1) has been completed
1 Takeoff and landing of armed helicopters are much simpler than fixed wing aircraft.
Correct answer:
2 The first automatic gyro machine is made by ().
A、Germany
B、Spain
C、Japan
D、The right answer in the United States: B
3 The rotorcraft is designed and manufactured from the angle of lightening the aircraft’s own weight.
Correct answer: X
4 It is () to prevent the helicopter’s single paddle rolling.
A、Fuselage
B、wing
C、Tail rotor
D、The correct answer to the fan leaf: C
5 The following () has a key impact on rotor lift.
A、The length of the rotor
B、The quality of the rotor
C、Surface area of a rotor
D、The correct answer to the rotor’s profile is: D, helicopter (two) has been completed.
1 At present, there is no () type airfoil in practice.
A、articulated
B、Turbo
C、Bearingless
D、The correct answer to the stilt plate type: A
2 Below () the airborne equipment that does not belong to the helicopter.
A、An electric appliance
B、Navigation
C、Rudder
D、Correct answers to communication and electronic countermeasures: C
3 At present, the helicopter has reached the level of shock wave.
Correct answer: X
4 The front and rear flight of the helicopter is controlled by () adjusting the direction of the rotor shaft.
A、Navigation system
B、Rudder
C、Control rod
D、All the answers are correct and correct: C
5 The helicopter with a take-off weight of more than 20 tons is a heavy helicopter.
Correct answer:
The helicopter (three) has been completed
1 The closer the center of gravity of an aircraft is, the better it will take off and land.
Correct answer: X
2 The advantage of the cross type helicopter is ().
A、Small positive resistance
B、Transmission system is simple
C、Strong balance performance
D、High correct answer to security: A
3 The developed aviation industry in developed countries is based on a large number of ().
A、flight
B、production
C、wind tunnel test
D、Correct answers to design and experience: D
4 The tail rotor can successfully control any helicopter in any state.
Correct answer: X
5 The original idea of aircraft design is ().
A、Sufficient security
B、Enough power
C、Sufficient stability
D、The correct answer to low fuel consumption is B: UAV (1) has been completed.
1 The earliest UAV was a radio telecontrol aircraft.
Correct answer:
2 The advanced stage of UAV development is ().
A、Intelligentization
B、Fighter
C、Stealth
D、The correct answer to high speed: B
3 So far, the technical difficulties of converting active bombers to unmanned bombers have not yet been solved.
Correct answer: X
4 The first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in the world was completed by the control system and automatic navigation.
A、Autopilot unmanned aerial vehicle
B、“Predator “
C、Pulse jet engine aircraft
D、“The correct answer to the Global Hawk: C
5 At present, the most active aircraft in the world’s aviation industry is ().
A、Military aircraft
B、civil aircraft
C、Military fighter
D、UAV
Correct answer: D UAVs (two) has been completed
1 Air conditioning, oxygen supply and turbocharging equipment are also necessary for UAVs.
Correct answer: X
2 The UAV made by () can greatly reduce the capability of its reflector radar.
A、Nonmetallic materials
B、titanium alloy
C、Aluminium alloy
D、The correct answer to copper: A
3 The UAV receives the signal and executes the command through the () to operate the UAV.
A、Automatic navigator
B、Autopilot
C、Central control system
D、The correct answer to the signal receiving system: B
4 The beacon can increase the range of radar detection.
Correct answer:
5 The shortcoming of remote flight is ().
A、Complicate the design of unmanned aerial vehicles
B、Improve the manufacturing cost of UAV
C、Reduce the flexibility of UAV tactics
D、The correct answer is: D, UAV (three) has been completed.
1 The UAV with automatic control needs to be remote controlled on the ground.
Correct answer:
2 At present, the more navigation used by astronauts is strapdown inertial navigation.
Correct answer: X
3 Inertial navigation platform obtains its speed and position by sensing the aircraft’s ().
A、acceleration
B、displacement
C、Instantaneous velocity
D、The correct answer to flight height: A
4 The system that controls and directs autopilot to correct track deviation in UAVs is ().
A、Rudder
B、Track monitor
C、Program device
D、The correct answer to the automatic navigator: C
5 The takeoff method of the UAV is ().
A、Launch vehicle
B、Rocket booster
C、Ground takeoff
D、Option A and option B the correct answer: D, UAV (four) has been completed.
1 The takeoff principle of the helicopter is ().
A、Vertical takeoff
B、Short distance gliding
C、Long distance gliding
D、Both vertical and gliding answers are correct: A
2 The landing of the UAV is more complex than the takeoff.
Correct answer:
3 The landing of the UAVs can be made by the landing of the air cushion.
A、Muddy land
B、Ice and snow
C、Surface of the water
D、All the answers are correct and correct: D
4 The UAV is not yet used for combat
Correct answer: X
The spacecraft (1) has been completed
1 The essential difference between a spacecraft and an aircraft is whether air is needed during flight.
Correct answer:
2 The first man-made satellite of mankind was launched into space in 1957 and opened the door for mankind to enter the universe.
A、The former Soviet Union
B、U.S.A
C、China
D、The correct answer to Germany: A
3 The orbit of all planets is a parabola.
Correct answer: X
4 Objects must fly enough to fly away from the earth.
A、quality
B、temperature
C、momentum
D、Speed right answer: D
5“”Out of speed” means ().
A、First cosmic velocity
B、Second cosmic velocity
C、Third cosmic velocity
D、Cosmic velocity
Correct answer: space shuttle B (two) has been completed.
1 The most widely used space vehicle is ().
A、Manned space shuttle
B、satellite
C、Lunar probe
D、The correct answer to the Mars probe: B
2 The following () is not a part of the satellite.
A、The noumenon of the satellite
B、power supply system
C、Shock absorption system
D、The correct answer to the attitude control system: C
3 Satellites do not need the fuel power of aircraft or automobiles to operate outside the atmosphere for a long time.
Correct answer:
4 Satellites used to survey and study the natural resources of the earth are ().
A、Communication satellite
B、meteorological satellite
C、Investigation satellite
D、The correct answer to the resource satellite: D
5 The satellite is not testable.
Correct answer: X
The spacecraft (three) has been completed
1 The recovery of satellites is the same as that of spacecraft recovery.
Correct answer:
2 It is possible for the satellite to rebound when the satellite enters the air with higher density from the low density air.
Correct answer:
3 The best satellite launch base in the world is ().
A、Kuru
B、Jiuquan
C、Xichang
D、The correct answer to Taiyuan: A
4 The fuel of the Long March 3 launch vehicle engine is ().
A、Liquified natural gas
B、Liquefied hydrogen
C、Liquefied carbon monoxide
D、The correct answer to liquefied hydrogen and carbon monoxide is B.
5 The six rocket that Apollo sent a manned spacecraft to the moon is ().
A、Soyuz
B、Del they carry the rocket
C、Great power launch vehicle
D、Saturn 5 rocket correctly answered: D (four) spacecraft has been completed.
1 Between the earth and the sun, the nearest to the earth is ().
A、Mars
B、Venus
C、Mercury
D、The correct answer to Saturn: B
2 Today’s aeronautics technology has solved the technical problem that the aircraft can not get close to the sun.
Correct answer:
3 The former Soviet Union successfully launched the manned spaceship “East Fang” for the first time.
A、1932 year
B、1947 year
C、1961 year
D、1983 The correct answer to the year: C
4 China does not yet have the capability to build a space station.
Correct answer: X
5 When the US space shuttle returned to earth, it ended up in a crash.
A、Endeavour
B、atlantis
C、discovery
D、Challenger’s correct answer: flight D (1) has been completed.
1 The main index to evaluate aero engine quality is ().
A、Weight ratio
B、Oil consumption rate
C、reliability
D、All the answers are correct and correct: D
2 The fuel of a piston type aero engine is ().
A、gasoline
B、Liquified natural gas
C、Liquefied hydrogen
D、Correct answer to liquefied carbon monoxide: A
3 Solid or liquid aviation fuels do not require oxygen for combustion.
Correct answer:
4 The biggest advantage of liquid rocket engine is its very light weight.
Correct answer: X
5 The power source of an electric rocket engine can not come from.
A、nuclear energy
B、Bioenergy
C、chemical energy
D、The correct answer to solar energy: B, the flight power plant (two) has been completed.
1 The primary task of developing nuclear rocket engines is ().
A、Solving nuclear security problems
B、Increase the utilization of nuclear energy
C、Improve the speed of the rocket
D、Improve the correct answer to the weight ratio: A
2 The advantage of pulsating jet engine is full combustion and high energy utilization.
Correct answer:
3 The fuel consumption rate of the turbine engine is very high when the speed of the aircraft is high.
A、Greater than supersonic speed
B、Equal to supersonic speed
C、Less supersonic than supersonic
D、Less than subsonic correct answer: C
4 Pilots perform afterburner operations in the following () situations.
A、acceleration
B、land
C、take off
D、Correct answer to emergency brake: D
5 Within a certain range, the larger the bypass ratio of a turbine engine is, the lower the fuel consumption rate of the turbine engine.
Correct answer:

 

The use of artificial earth satellites for classification of man-made earth satellites can be classified into three categories according to their usage: scientific satellites, technical test satellites and application satellites. Scientific satellite science satellites are satellites for scientific exploration and research, mainly including space physics exploration satellites, astronomical satellites and biological satellites.And space microgravity test satellites. It is used to study the upper atmosphere, the earth’s radiation belt, the earth’s magnetosphere, cosmic rays, solar radiation, etc., and can observe other stars. Example: 1. The first satellite Explorer launched by the United States is a scientific exploration satellite. After that, the Explorer developed into one.The scientific satellite series, which are mainly used to detect the earth’s atmosphere and the ionosphere, measure the earth’s high altitude magnetic field, measure the solar radiation, the solar wind, and detect interstellar space. 2, the “electronic” satellite is a scientific satellite series of the former Soviet Union, with high and low sensitivity magnetometers and low-energy particles.Analyzer, proton detector, solar X ray counter and instrument for studying cosmic radiation composition. The main task of this series of satellites is to study the particles entering the earth’s inner and outer radiation belts and the various spatial physical phenomena. 3, China’s “practice” series of satellites is the technical experiment guards.The star is also a scientific detection satellite. “Practice No. 1” satellite equipped with infrared horizon instrument, solar angle detector and other instruments, and obtained many environmental data. “Practice No. two” and No. two and two are three satellites launched simultaneously by one rocket. Among them, “practice two” has eight sides prism.The task is to explore the space environment, to test solar array for directional attitude control and large capacity data storage and other new technologies.
Scientific satellite
Scientific satellite
Two. Technical test satellite
The technology test satellite is a satellite that performs new technology experiments or tests for applied satellites. There are many new principles, new materials and new instruments in space technology. Whether they can be used or not, they must be tested in the sky. The performance of a new satellite is also only launching it to the sky to “exercise” and the test is successful.It can be applied; animal experiments must be carried out before human beings are born. These are the missions of technology test satellites. Example: 1, practice No.1 satellite is China’s first scientific exploration and technology experimental satellite. It was launched in March 3, 1971 and weighed 221 kilograms.A polyhedron similar to a spheroid with a diameter of 1 meters. Its main tasks are the solar cell power supply system on the test star, active passive temperature control system, long life telemetry equipment and radio circuit performance and other space environment detection. The design life of Practice No. 1 is one year, but it is actually in space.China worked for 8 years until June 17, 1979. In 2 and November 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched a satellite named “Raya” puppy, “artificial earth satellite” two, the first creature in the world.The satellite. The 5 kilogram of Lai Yi card lives very well in the small satellite module, the scientist designed a life support system for it, so that the environment in the cabin is the same as the ground, with food. Leuca was fitted with various probes for monitoring blood pressure, respiration, heart rate and other physiological indicators.The interest was sent back to the ground scientists.
No.1 experiment
Biological satellite
No.1 experiment
Three. The satellite application satellite is the satellite which serves the human beings directly. The satellite, the weather satellite, the reconnaissance satellite, the navigation satellite, the earth satellite, the earth resource satellite, the interception satellite and so on are the most kinds and the largest number of satellites. Example: the United States launched in 1 and 1962.Reconnaissance “electronic reconnaissance satellite” can detect radio systems in a wide frequency band. The spy satellite weighs about 1000 kilograms, and it can fly across Moss two times in a day.
The radio signals can be stored over the section, and when the satellite runs to the predetermined area, it will automatically send the intelligence radio back to the ground, or return it back to the ground with a recycling cabin. US intelligence agencies often use it to intercept the secret radio waves sent by Soviet headquarters to the various naval fleets around the world.2, China launched the first meteorological satellite, “Fengyun I” solar synchronous orbit meteorological satellite, in September 7, 1988. The clarity of satellite images is comparable to that of the US “Nuo A” satellite image. However, due to the failure of satellite components, it only works for 39 days.. After that, four polar orbit meteorological satellites (wind clouds) and three stationary meteorological satellites (Fengyun two) have been successfully launched, which have experienced the development process from the polar orbit satellite to the stationary satellite, from the experimental satellite to the service satellite.
Spy satellite
Reconnaissance satellite
Spy satellite
meteorological satellite
Reference: [1] Baidu Encyclopedia [2] good search Encyclopedia

 

Direct -5 helicopter rice -4 series has been basically retired

The only stealth strategic bomber in the world today is nicknamed B-2.

Liquid can maintain a certain volume and can not maintain the shape of the gas. It can neither keep the volume nor keep the shape.

1.Aeronautics and Astronautics, widely used in the field of aviation: the navigation of a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle in the earth’s atmosphere must be equipped with an air medium. There are military and civil aviation. Aerospace: refers to manned or unmanned spacecraft in the earth’s atmosphere beyond the navigation activities, also known as space.Flight or cosmic flight. There is a division of military and civil space. 2. aircraft classification: lighter than air aircraft: balloons, airships heavier than air aircraft: (1) fixed wing aircraft: aircraft, glider (2) rotor aircraft: helicopter, rotor (3) flapping wing machine (3).4) classification of tilted rotorcraft spacecraft: (1) unmanned spacecraft: artificial earth satellite: scientific satellite, application satellite, and technology test satellite. Space probes: lunar explorers, planets and interplanetary probes. (2) manned spacecraft: manned spacecraft: Satellite manned spacecraft, manned spacecraft to the moon.. Space station. Space shuttle. Airplanes. 3. the position and function of Aeronautics and Astronautics in national defense and economic construction (1) the development of Aeronautics and Astronautics is closely linked with military applications, and (2) the great achievements made in the field of Aeronautics and Astronautics have produced great shadow to many departments of the national economy.(3) the aerospace industry has become an important part of the economy of some developed countries. 1. the characteristics of the aircraft’s environment: flight environment including atmospheric flight environment and space flight environment. Air environment is the only flight environment for an aircraft, and also a necessary flight for spacecraft, missiles and rockets.The air density, temperature and pressure in the atmosphere vary with the height of the atmosphere, and the space flight environment mainly refers to the flight environment formed by vacuum, electromagnetic radiation, high energy particle radiation, plasma and micro flow stars, and is the main environment for the flight of spacecraft. Including the geospatial environmentThe interplanetary space environment and the interstellar space environment. The viscosity of the 2. fluid: the force produced by the movement of the adjacent atmosphere, that is, the friction caused by the sliding between the adjacent layers of the atmosphere, also called the internal friction of the atmosphere. Compressibility: the compressibility of a gas is that of the gas.The density and volume of a body change when its pressure changes. Sound speed refers to the speed of sound propagation in an object. The magnitude of sound waves is related to the medium of propagation, and varies with the temperature in the same medium. Maher number: when measuring the degree of compression of the air, the motion of the object can be used.The ratio of velocity to sound velocity indicates that this ratio is called Maher number, usually expressed in Ma, that is, Ma=v/a. V indicates the speed of the aircraft at a certain altitude, while a means the sound velocity at the point. 3. when a continuous equation of gas flows in a pipe, it is within the unit time.The mass of the gas flowing through the pipe cross section A-A should be equal to the mass of the gas flowing through the pipe cross section B-B, that is, the continuity equation for the flow of the compressible fluid of P 1v1A1= Rho 2v2A2: P 1v1A1= rho 2.V2A2= P 3v3A3=, = constant (where p is atmospheric density, kg/m3; V is the velocity of gas, m/s; A is the area of the cross section, m 2.) the continuity equation of incompressible fluid flowing along the pipe: v1A1=v2A2=V3A3=, = constant (the gas is incompressible when the gas is at low velocity, that is, the gas is incompressible, that is, the density is kept constant). The incompressible ideal fluid for the steady flow of the 4. Bernoulli equation in the pipe lies in the dynamic pressure and static of the fluid everywhere in the pipeline without the energy exchange.The sum of pressure should always remain the same: static pressure + dynamic pressure = total pressure = constant. P+? P v2= constant p+? V2=p2+ v2=p2+ P v22=, the constant P is the density of the fluid, and V is the velocity of the fluid.
5.When gas flows in a pipe, the flow of a fluid in a variable cross section pipe, where the section is small, the flow rate is large and the pressure is small; where the area is large, the flow rate is small and the pressure is large. 6. the basic principle of aircraft lift is due to the action of airfoil when the airflow flows over the upper wing surface.The flow velocity increases and the pressure decreases, and the pressure is lower than the air pressure in the front. When the airflow flows through the lower wing, the airflow is blocked, and the flow passage expands, the flow velocity decreases, the pressure increases, and is higher than the atmospheric pressure in the front air flow. So, between the upper and lower wingsIt formed a pressure difference, resulting in an upward lift Y. Factors that affect aircraft lift (1) influence of airfoil area (2) influence of relative velocity (3) effect of air density (3) air density (4) wing profile shape and angle of attack effect five resistance of 7. aircraft, corresponding reductionSmall resistance measures (1) frictional resistance (2) pressure differential resistance. Measures: minimize the maximum windward area of the aircraft and rectify the components of the aircraft to streamline, and some parts, such as the head of a piston type engine, should be fitted with a fairing. (3) induced resistance. Measures: increase the ratio of the aspect ratio, selectChoose appropriate plane shape, increase winglet and winglet to reduce induced drag. (4) interference resistance. Measures: the relative position of the components should be considered and arranged properly when the design is designed. When necessary, streamlined rectifying plates are installed between these components so as to make the junction smooth and smooth and minimize the formation of the whirlpool.(5) shock wave resistance. Measure: the leading edge of the fuselage and wing is designed to sharp shape, so as to reduce the shock intensity and reduce the shock resistance. 8. the aerodynamic layout of an aircraft can be divided into upper single wing, medium single wing and lower single wing according to the upper and lower positions of the wing and the fuselage.The fruit can be divided into three kinds, which are upper reverse wing, no upper reverse wing and lower reverse wing, which can be divided into three types: single tail, double tail and no vertical tail.The longitudinal position of the wing, that is, the longitudinal aerodynamic layout of the aircraft, is usually normal, duck and tail type. In order to reduce the wave resistance of supersonic aircraft, the fuselage generally uses a sharp, thin and long cylindrical body with a long and thin body.The ratio between the length of the body and the maximum diameter of the fuselage section can reach ten or even higher. 9. the difference in shape between the low speed aircraft and the supersonic aircraft (1) is low and the airfoil of the subsonic aircraft is relatively large, usually between 6~9, and the shoot root ratio is larger, usually around 0.33.The speed of aircraft wings is small, usually between 2.5~3.5, and the tip is relatively small, about 0.2. (2) low speed aircraft often use a trapezoid wing with a backward swept angle or a small sweep angle, and a subsonic aircraft is generally smaller, generally less than 35o; and ultrasonicSpeed aircraft generally are large swept wings or delta wings, leading edge sweep angle is generally 40 o~60 o. (3) the wing airfoil of low speed and subsonic aircraft is usually with the round head and tail type. The radius of the front edge is larger and the relative thickness is relatively large. It is usually between 0.1~0.12 and the ultrasonic speed flight.The head of the airfoil is small round head or pointed tip (the leading edge radius is relatively small), the relative thickness is also small, generally around 0.05. (4) the length of low and subsonic aircraft wings is usually larger than the length of the fuselage, and the slenderness ratio of the fuselage is smaller than that of the airframe, generally between 5~7.Large, short front fuselage, a large and prominent cockpit; and the length of the fuselage of the supersonic aircraft is larger than the airfoil length, the fuselage is slender, the length of the fuselage is more than 8, the head of the fuselage is more sharp, the cockpit is integrated with the fuselage, and it is streamlined.
10.Sonic boom: when a plane flies at supersonic speed, it forms a shock wave on the plane, and it spreads to the ground to form a thunderlike explosion, that is, the phenomenon of sound explosion. Excessive sound explosion may cause damage to people and buildings on the ground. Thermal barrier: when the airplane flies at supersonic speed, the air in the surface layer of the aircraft is affected.Strong friction block and compression, speed greatly reduced, kinetic energy into internal energy, so that the surface temperature of aircraft increased dramatically. The aerodynamic heating can reduce the strength and stiffness of the structure. The aerodynamic shape of the aircraft is destroyed and the flight safety is endangered. The hazard obstacle caused by pneumatic heating is called the thermal barrier. ElevenThe main flight performance of aircraft is speed, range, ceiling, take-off and landing performance and maneuverability. 13. aircraft stability and maneuverability stability: in the course of flight, if the aircraft is deviated from the original state of balance by a disturbance, after the disturbance is disappearing, it is not manipulated by the pilot.The characteristic of automatic recovery of the function to the original equilibrium state. Maneuverability: the ability of a pilot to change the flight condition of a plane by manipulating equipment such as a joystick, a pedal and a pneumatic rudder. 2. air jet engine works first by air intake into the engine, and the air velocity decreases.The force rises. When the airflow passes through the compressor, the air pressure can increase several times to tens of times. The air with higher pressure enters the combustion chamber, which is fully mixed with the fuel ejected from the nozzle, and after burning, the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into internal energy. After that, the high speed and high pressure gas generated by the combustion drive the turbine.High speed rotating turbines generate mechanical energy to drive compressors and other accessories. The outlet gas of the turbine expands directly in the nozzle, resulting in the conversion of the available energy of the gas into the kinetic energy of the high-speed jet. The functions of each component; (1) intake system: sorting air flow into the engine.Eliminate whirlpool, ensure that the air volume required by the engine can be supplied under various working conditions. (2) compressor: increase the air pressure into the combustion chamber of the engine. (3) combustor is the place where fuel is mixed with high pressure air from the compressor. After burning, the chemical energy of the fuel is changed intoInternal energy, gas temperature and pressure rise. (4) turbine: convert the energy of high temperature and high pressure gas from the combustor to mechanical energy. (5) afterburner: increase the injection speed of the gas at the outlet of the nozzle. (6) tail nozzle: exhaust system of engine, finishing combustion air flow, gas expansion and acceleration.The thrust is produced by the ejection. The advantages and disadvantages of 3. solid rocket motor and liquid rocket engine (1) the main advantages of liquid rocket engine are: high specific impulse, large reasoning range, repeated start, easy to control the size of reasoning, long working time, and more application in the propulsion system of spacecraft. shortcomingIt is: liquid propellants, especially low boiling points and corrosive components, must be injected into the tank before use, so the use of tactical weapons, such as missiles, is limited. The pre packaging technology of liquid propellant can be used to make pre packaged propellants to a great extent.The operational performance of liquid propellant rocket engine is poor. (2) advantages of solid rocket motor: (1) simple structure, no complex propellant delivery system and forced cooling system, no other active components except thrust vector control mechanism, high reliability; 2.The operation of the missile is simple, the launch preparation work and the start of the rocket are more convenient than the liquid rocket engine; and the solid propellant is stable and can make the solid rocket engine under the loading state on the launch position.
Long-term storage, suitable for strategic use requirements; the shortcomings of solid rocket engines: solid propellant energy is smaller than liquid propellant, smaller specific impulse; the initial temperature of the charge has great influence on the pressure and working time of the combustion chamber, and the working time of the engine is short; the thrust adjustment is difficult and the repetition start is rather sleepy.Hard。 Solid rocket motors are widely used in rocket boosters, missiles, sounding rockets, launch vehicles and aircraft boosters. 1. the range of airborne equipment, all kinds of measuring sensors, various display instruments and displays, navigation systems, radar systems, communication systems, guidance systems,Automatic control system, power electrical system and so on. The function of airborne equipment is that the airborne equipment connects all the components of the aircraft, which is equivalent to the brain, nerve and command system of the aircraft. It can help pilots operate safely, timely, reliably and accurately, and ensure the various tasks of the aircraft.The realization of energy, tactical and technical performance, automatic completion of scheduled flight tasks, completion of certain pilots can not complete the task of operation. 2. flight parameters (1) flight parameters – flight height, velocity, acceleration, attitude angle and attitude angular velocity, etc.; 2. Dynamic system parameters – engine speed and temperatureDegree, fuel quantity, intake pressure and fuel pressure, etc.; (3) navigation parameters – position, course, height, speed and distance, etc.; (4) parameters of the life support system – cockpit temperature, humidity, air pressure, oxygen content and oxygen reserve, and so on; 5. Pilot physiological parameters – flying staff pulse, blood pressure and waking stateThe parameters of the weapon aiming system – the distance, speed, height, radar warning and attack warning of the target, and other system parameters – the parameters of the power system, the degree of equipment integrity and the degree of structural damage. 3. measuring principle of barometric height and barometric speedometer: air pressure altimeter: by measuringThe air pressure at the position of the aircraft is indirectly obtained by conversion. Barometric airspeed meter: indirectly measuring relative airflow velocity by feeling pressure. The 4. main characteristics of the gyroscope are 1 (1) axial stability. Fixed axis refers to the high speed rotor with its axis of rotation in the inertial space.The invariable characteristic. (2) precession. The precession means that when the rotor is affected by the external torque, the rotor’s axis does not turn to the direction of G, but tries to make the rotor rotation vector close to the torque vector of the shortest path, that is, H to M. Then the gyro didn’t fall off the bracket.Instead, w rotates around the vertical axis at a certain angular speed. This rotation is called precession. 5. measurement of flight attitude angle, the attitude angle of the aircraft is relative to the earth’s coordinate system and has nothing to do with the direction of the air flow, including the pitch angle, the yaw angle and the roll angle. The measurement is made up of gyroscopes and by the gyroscopes.He measured the instrument made up of the sensor to complete it. 6. the definition of navigation is the process of guiding aircraft, spacecraft, rockets, missiles and other moving bodies from one place to the destination. The main principles of navigation technology (radio navigation, satellite navigation, inertial navigation and image matching navigation)(1) radio navigation: by the use of radio wave emission and reception, measuring the azimuth and distance of the aircraft relative to the navigation station, so as to determine the navigation parameters, such as the position, speed and channel of the aircraft.
(2)Satellite navigation: by using the radio signals transmitted by a navigation satellite, the position of the spacecraft relative to the satellite is calculated and then the position of the aircraft on the earth is calculated according to the relative position of the known satellite to the ground. It can provide information such as longitude, latitude, height, precise time, ground speed and so on. (3)Sexual navigation: by measuring the acceleration of an aircraft, the speed and position of the aircraft at that time are calculated by operation. (4) image matching navigation: comparing the real time map with the pre stored original map to determine the deviation between the actual position of the aircraft and the required position, and to navigate to the aircraft. 7. automatic controlAutomatic driving system (autopilot system, instrument landing system) automatic driving system is the main airborne equipment of modern aircraft, instead of pilots to complete certain flight tasks, and unmanned aircraft is completely based on the pre given program. The autopilot system can help the pilotComplete the scheduled flight flight, complete the automatic takeoff and landing under complex weather conditions, and complete the difficult special flight tasks such as terrain tracking with the assistance of other navigation systems. The instrument landing system consists of the course, glide, pointing beacon receiver and indicator on the aircraft, as well as ground navigation.It is composed of the platform, the lower slider and the finger beacon. They can provide the distance information of the heading, the lower runway and the landing to the aircraft. 1. the definition of aircraft structure. The structure of aircraft is the general term of the force components and supporting structures of aircraft. Basic requirements for them (1) aerodynamic requirements:The aircraft structure meets the aerodynamic shape and surface quality required for flight performance; (2) weight and strength and stiffness requirements: the lighter the structure weight of the aircraft, the better the better the weight and strength, stiffness and life of the aircraft; (3) the use of maintenance requirements: the convenience of the aircraft structure and the convenience of inspection.Inspection, maintenance and repair, the use process should be safe and reliable, easy to transport, storage and storage; (4) under certain conditions of production, the structure of the aircraft requires simple process, convenient manufacturing, short production cycle, low cost. 2. kinds of materials used by aircraft (1) aluminum magnesium alloys(2) alloy steel. Alloy steel mainly includes high strength structural steel and high temperature resistant and corrosion-resistant stainless steel. (3) composite material. Composite materials are multiphase materials made up of two or more materials. 3. the basic structure of the aircraft. The conventional aircraft consists of fuselage, wing, tail, landing gear and power plant.It is composed of five major components, and makes up all of the aircraft through the necessary systems, such as airborne equipment, fuel system, hydraulic air conditioning system, man-machine environment system, electrical system, control system and so on. 4. the layout and characteristics of the landing gear on the aircraft (1) the latter three points: two sides are placed side by side before the center of gravity of the aircraft.Wheel has a smaller tail wheel in the tail of an aircraft; (2) the first three points: two main wheels placed side by side after the center of gravity, and a front wheel in the front of the aircraft; (3) bicycle type: two main wheels are arranged in front and back of the center of gravity of the fuselage to prevent the ground from dumping and another two auxiliary wheels.It is said to be installed under the wing. 5. the space shuttle’s functional space shuttle is a spaceflight that can be reused, shuttle between the earth surface and the near earth orbit. It is also a spacecraft that can enter the multiple tasks in the near earth orbit. The basic composition of the space shuttle
It consists of orbiter, plug-in fuel tank and rocket booster. Except for fuel tanks, the rest can be reused. 6. the combination mode and characteristics of the launch vehicle (1) series type: each sub stage of the rocket is sequentially coaxial. The advantages are small aerodynamic resistance, simple interstage connection and small interference during separation.The separation failure is less; the launching device is simple. The drawback is that the rocket has large length and poor bending stiffness, and the rocket’s transportation, storage and erection before launching are inconvenient. (2) parallel type: there is a core level in the middle, and each sub level (boost stage) is bundled up around the core level, and the axis of the sub level is parallel to the core level.There is a small angle, the sub level and the core level engine start working at the same time. The advantage is that the existing single stage rocket can be combined to speed up the development process. The rocket has short length and good stability on the launch pad. The disadvantages are large cross section, large flight resistance, complicated interstage connection and interference during separation.Big. (3) hybrid type: with a series of core level, and also around the core level, there are also bundled auxiliary clippers. 7. the winged missile consists of a warhead system, a power system, a guidance system and a missile body. (1) the warhead system consists of warheads, fuzes and safety devices.Destroy the target. (2) the power system consists of an engine, a fuel storage and conveying device, and a flight power. (3) guidance system: guided control missile flies from a certain accuracy to the target. (4) the projectile includes three parts: missile body, missile wing and control surface. Flight control mode of 8. ballistic missile (1)Gas rudder: the rudder is placed in the gas jet, and its function is the same as that of the rudder in the air. (2) swing engine: install the liquid rocket main engine on universal bearings and control it in the tilt of the Lakers’ yaw. (3) swing nozzle: (4) fixed attitude control engine (5)Two injection techniques
Multi warhead control mode: cluster multiple warhead, guided multi warhead, mobile multi warhead.
1.How is the aircraft classified?

Equipment that flies in space or outside the atmosphere. The aircraft is divided into 3 categories: aircraft, navigation
The sky weapon, the rocket and the missile. The aircraft that flies in the atmosphere is called an aircraft, such as balloons, gliders, airships, etc.
A plane, a helicopter, etc. They rely on the static buoyancy of the air or the aerodynamic force generated by the relative motion of the air. stay
Space flying vehicles are called spacecrafts, such as artificial earth satellites, manned spacecraft, space probes, and space shuttles.
Wait. Driven by launch vehicles, they get the necessary speed to enter space, and then perform the orbit under gravitational force.
Exercise. Rockets are powered by rocket engines. They can fly in the atmosphere or outside the atmosphere.
That’s ok。 Missiles are controllable rockets equipped with warheads, with ballistic missiles and wings mounted mainly outside the atmosphere.
Surface to air missiles and cruise missiles that are flying in the atmosphere.
 
 

How is the aircraft classified? How to subdivide all kinds of aircraft?
According to the basic principle of lift, different aircraft are divided into lighter than the same volume of air and heavier than the same volume.
Two categories of aircraft
 1Lighter than air, lighter than air, aircrafts include balloons and airships.
It is the earliest aircraft. The balloon is usually the main body of the balloon. Under the air bag, there is usually a basket or a pod. According to the type of gas, it can also be divided into hot air balloons and hydrogen.
A ball of helium balloon, etc. Airbags are usually made of flexible materials such as dipped fabric or plastic film.
And air tightness. The function of the air bag is to fill the air with a smaller density than the air, so that the balloon can generate buoyancy in the air and go off. fly
The boat is equipped with a propulsion device to control the flight. According to the structural form, the airships are divided into soft, hard and semi rigid ones.
Three. Airships usually consist of hull, tail, pod, pod, propulsion and so on.
 2Air powered aircraft 1, fixed wing aircraft. A lift is produced mainly by a fixed wing. The rotor aircraft mainly generates lift by rotating. fixed
Wing aero glider. Aircraft refers to thrust or pull force generated by propulsion devices. A lift generated by a fixed wing in the atmosphere
An airspace heavier than air. Aircraft are divided into airplanes and propellers flying from different parts of the body and functional systems.
Machine. 2. The rotor of the rotor. The rotor industry consists of helicopters and rotors.
 3、Flapping wing machine. Also known as the vibrating wing machine. Flapping wing aircraft is an aircraft that is fluttering above and above the air like the wings of birds and insects.
 4、A tilting rotor. Rotor aircraft generate aerodynamic forces from rotating rotor. Tilting rotorcraft is a kind of aircraft with both rotor and fixed wing.
Both sides of the wing are equipped with a set of planes that can rotate between parallel and vertical.

 

 

 

 

② How many layers are the atmosphere? What are the characteristics of each layer?
According to the different characteristics of the atmosphere (such as temperature, composition and ionization degree, etc.), it is divided into troposphere, stratosphere, middle layer, thermal layer (ionosphere) and outer atmosphere from the ground.
  

troposphere
Close to the earth’s surface, a layer of the atmosphere, the movement of air is the convection movement dominated by updraft and downdraft, called the troposphere. Its thickness varies from 8 poles above the earth’s poles to 17 kilometers above the equator. It is the densest layer in the atmosphere. The water and gas in the atmosphere are almost all setIn this case, it is the “big stage” that shows the changing trend: wind, rain, snow and other weather phenomena all occur in the troposphere.
  

Stratosphere
Above the troposphere, up to 50 kilometers above the sea level, the air flow is mainly expressed in the horizontal direction, and the convection is weakened. The atmosphere is called the stratosphere, also known as the stratosphere. Basically, there is no water vapor, no cloudless weather, very few weather changes, and suitable for aircraft navigation. At 20~30At the height of the kilometre, oxygen molecules form an ozone layer under ultraviolet light, which acts as a barrier to protect the creatures on earth from the attack of solar energetic particles.

Middle layer
  Above the stratosphere, 85 kilometers away from the surface of the earth is called the “middle layer”, also known as the “dissipative layer”. Above the middle level, it is 500 kilometers away from the surface of the earth. It is called the “hot layer”. In these two layers, there are many interesting astronomical phenomena, such as Aurora, meteor and so on. Human beings also use the heat layer to achieve short waveRadio communication enables people to communicate with each other, because the atmosphere of the hot layer is irradiated by the sun, the temperature is high, the gas molecules or atoms are ionized in large quantities, and the complex probability is low. The ionosphere can be formed, and the radio short wave can be reflected.
  

Outer atmosphere
Above the thermosphere is the outer atmosphere extending to 1000 kilometers away from the earth’s surface. The temperature here is very high and can reach thousands of degrees. The atmosphere is extremely thin, and its density is 100 billion parts of the sea level.

 

 

 

 

 

③ The aerodynamic layout of aircraft refers to the number of aircraft main components and their mutual arrangement and configuration. What are the aerodynamic configurations of the aircraft?

 

There are many kinds of aerodynamic configurations for modern combat aircraft, including conventional layout, canard layout, tailless layout, three wing layout and flying wing layout.
 
The conventional layout is the most commonly used aerodynamic layout for modern aircraft, which is to place the horizontal tail and vertical tail of the aircraft behind the wings.
The tail of the aircraft is therefore called “regular layout”.
Canard layout is a very suitable aerodynamic layout for supersonic air combat. On both sides of the head before moving the horizontal tail to the main wing, the smaller wings can be used to achieve the same maneuvering, and the front wing and the wing can produce the lift simultaneously. The early duck layout flies like a duck.This is the name.
 
No tail, no vertical tail and flying wing layout can also be collectively referred to as tailless layout. Its basic advantages are low supersonic drag and lighter aircraft weight, but its take-off and landing performance and other poor performance.
 
Three wing surface layout:
Adding a pair of canard on both sides of the fuselage before the conventional layout of the main wing is called the “three wing layout”. The aircraft has good maneuverability, and it is suitable for direct force control to achieve precise control of flight trajectory, and also makes the aircraft more reasonable in load distribution.
  Flying wing layout:
There is no horizontal tail, so its radar reflection wave is very weak. The newest aircraft of the flying wing is the famous American B 2.
A stealth bomber. The aerodynamic shape of aircraft at high speed and low speed is better considered.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      

 

 

 

 

 

④ Since the founding of new China, what major achievements have been made in China’s aviation industry? (26 points)
After the founding of new China,
1951In April 17th of that year, the then government affairs office issued the “aviation industry”.
The decision to establish. In the late 50s, an aviation industry system suited to national defense needs was established.
1954In July, 5 of the first aircraft produced in China was successfully manufactured. 1956
In 2003, we began to set up scientific research institutions, and set up materials, technology information, technology and flight.
The Institute of experimental and pneumatic research institutes. China’s first fighter jet fighter 5 was successfully manufactured.
 1958In 2000, the multi-purpose transport plane was successfully launched in 5, and the first helicopter in China was 5 straight in the blue sky.
 1959In 2003, China’s first supersonic jet fighter 6 was successfully manufactured. In the same year, it was designed by ourselves.
The trainer’s primary 6 was also the first to fly.
  1965In 2003, the self designed assault machine 5 was designed and put into mass production.
  1966In 2007, China’s first two speed fighter aircraft was successfully launched.
   1968In 2008, China’s self-designed high-altitude fighter aircraft flew successfully.
  1978In the third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, after the party’s opening up, a reform and opening-up campaign was carried out in the opening up.
A new era of slightly transferred.
From the early 80s to the end of 90s, the first foreign trade company of China’s military industry was established.
Technology import and Export Corporation.
  1999In 2003, China Aviation Industry Corporation was divided into two groups, and the first group of China aviation industry was established respectively.
The company and the China Aviation Industry Corporation Ii. China’s air and air to ground missiles are realized from the third generation to the first.
The four generation of leaps and bounds
……
 2011In 2006, China’s aviation industry, which passed a Jia Zi, stood at the height of the historical process of national national development.
During the transformation of the economic development mode, the goal of building an aviation power and building a world-class multinational group was put forward.
Transformation from growing competition to international competition.

 

 

1、Big homework questions:
① How is the aircraft classified? How is the aircraft classified? How to subdivide all kinds of aircraft? 30 points
② How many layers are the atmosphere? What are the characteristics of each layer? (20)
③ The aerodynamic layout of aircraft refers to the number of aircraft main components and their mutual arrangement and configuration. What are the aerodynamic configurations of the aircraft? (24)
④ Since the founding of new China, what major achievements have been made in China’s aviation industry? (26 points)
2、The number of words requires:
The number of words in each question should be within 500 words.
Number 4, the number of words is within 800 words.
3、Format requirements:
Unified format, if the format is not required, then deduct a certain score.
Homemade cover (printable, handwritten), written in sequence, “general aviation homework, class, student number, name, date”, all are in the middle.
Text: you need to write handwritten, write questions first, and then answer. The printer has no score!
4、Binding requirements:
Use A4 paper, cover, first questions, second questions, third questions, fourth questions, sequentially binding, left side binding.

1.The main features and uses of the helicopter are briefly described. Answer: the main components of the helicopter are rotor and fuselage. Rotor is not only a component of lift, but also a component of pulling force. Helicopters can take up and down vertically, hovering in the air, and fly in any direction. There are not many special requirements for landing and landing sites.
But the flight speed is low and the course is shorter. Helicopters are widely used for military or civilian purposes. Military aspects such as battlefield attack, reconnaissance, equipment and transportation, etc., such as emergency rescue, disaster relief, medical rescue, commercial transportation, etc.
2.The principle of airfoil lift during low speed flight is briefly described. Answer: when the plane is flying normally, the speed of air flowing through the upper surface of the wing is greater than the speed of the lower surface. According to the continuity principle of the air movement and the Bernoulli equation, the pressure is large in the place where the flow velocity is large, and the static pressure is small, and the place where the flow velocity is small is small.The static pressure is big. Therefore, the hydrostatic pressure on the upper surface of the wing is less than the static pressure on the lower surface, so that there is a static pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing, and the pressure of the upper and lower pressure difference is upward because the hydrostatic pressure of the lower surface is greater than the hydrostatic pressure on the upper surface. This is the source of the lift.
3.What is the steering surface of the pilot in the cockpit? What is the deflection of the control surface? What is the movement of the aircraft? What is the deflection of the steering surface and the movement of the aircraft? What is the deflection of the aircraft’s control surface when pedaling the right foot?
? What movement does the plane do? Answer: the pilot left the steering wheel in the cockpit, the left aileron of the aircraft is deflected upward, the right aileron is deflected downward, and the aircraft is heading.
The pilot pushes the driving rod in front of the cockpit, the aircraft’s elevator is deflected downward, the plane does downward subduction, the pilot deflects the rudder to the right while the pilot is pedaling on the right foot in the cockpit, and the aircraft does the right yaw movement; three, noun interpretation (altogether)
4. Maher number: the ratio of the flying speed of an aircraft (far ahead velocity) to the speed of sound in the atmosphere above the flight altitude is called the Maher number. 5. attack angle: on the airfoil plane, the angle between the incoming flow and the chord of the airfoil is defined as the geometric attack angle, or the attack angle. 6. sound barrier: once the subsonic plane is flatWhen the velocity is approaching to sound speed, it is found that it is difficult to speed up the speed, and it is difficult to manipulate it. Sometimes it even loses control of the automatic low head subduction, causing the tragedy of the flight accident. This phenomenon is called the “sound barrier”).
7.Write the expression of continuity equation and Bernoulli equation in aerodynamics, and use them to explain the lift phenomenon of airfoil. A: continuity equation: Bernoulli equation: when a plane is flying normally, the velocity of air flowing through the upper surface of the wing is greater than the velocity of the lower surface, and the air movement is connected.The continuation principle and Bernoulli equation show that the dynamic pressure of large flow velocity is large, while the static pressure is small, and the flow pressure is small, and the static pressure is large. Therefore, the static pressure on the upper surface of the wing is smaller than the static pressure on the lower surface.
There is a static pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Because the hydrostatic pressure of the lower surface is larger than the hydrostatic pressure on the upper surface, the pressure from the upper and lower pressure difference is upward, which is the source of the lift.
8.Which 5 subsystems does China’s lunar exploration project consist of? Answer: (1) the lunar probe system; (2) the launch vehicle system; (3) the launching system; (4) the measurement and control communication system; (5) what are the factors affecting the longitudinal stability, lateral stability and direction stability of the ground application system 9.? In general, it isAerodynamic layout and quality characteristics. Longitudinal stability: the relative position of the center of gravity and the focus, the position and area of the flat tail; lateral stability: upper reverse angle, the relative position of the wing and the fuselage, the wing sweep angle, the vertical tail, and the direction stability: the position and area of the vertical tail.
10.What are the factors that affect the lift? 1) the influence of the area of the wing. The larger the wing area, the greater the lift. 2) the influence of relative velocity. The greater the relative speed, the greater the lift of the wing. The lift is proportional to the square of the relative velocity. 3) the influence of air density. The greater the air densityAnd the greater the lift,
On the other hand, when the air is thin, the lift will become smaller. 4) the shape of the wing profile and the influence of the angle of attack. Different sections and different angles of attack will change the flow state of airflow around the wing (including velocity and pressure), which leads to the change of lift. The influence of the airfoil and angle of attack on the lift can be raised through the liftThe force coefficient Cy shows.
11.What kinds of lift devices are there? What is the principle? 1) change the shape of the wing profile, increase the curvature of the wing; 2) increase the area of the wing; 3) change the flow state of the airflow, control the surface layer on the wing, and delay the separation of the airflow. Principle, lift and wing area, wing profile.Shape, angle of attack and relative velocity of air flow are related.
12.What are the “three similarities”? (requirement of wind tunnel test) geometric similarity: reduce the size of each part of the model in the same proportion according to the size of the real aircraft. Motion similarity: make the true aircraft with the model
The flow velocity of the corresponding part is in the same proportion, and the velocity direction is the same. Dynamic similarity: the aerodynamic force acting on the model, lift and drag, is proportional to the size of the aerodynamic force on a real plane, and the same direction.
13.What is the positive shock wave and the oblique shock wave? What’s the difference between the two? The normal shock wave means that its wavefront is close to the vertical shock wave. Same
Ma Next, the positive shock is the strongest shock wave. Oblique shock wave refers to the shock wave inclined by the wave surface along the direction of the air flow, and the relative strength is relatively weak: 14. wingspan: the maximum lateral distance between the wing tip and the wing tip. Wing chord: the connection between the leading edge and the trailing edge of an airfoil. Leading edge sweep angle: the leading edge line of the wing and the plane perpendicular to the wing root.The angle between the lines. The main parameters that affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft are the leading edge swept angle and the machine.
The angle between the front edge of the wing and the straight line perpendicular to the symmetrical plane of the wing root; the ratio of the aspect ratio, the length of the wing to the average length of the string; the ratio of the tip to root ratio, the chord length of the wing tip and the chord length of the wing; the relative thickness of the airfoil, the ratio of the maximum thickness of the airfoil to the string length. Aerodynamic theory and experiment show that under low speed conditionIn the supersonic flight, the back swept wing can delay the shock wave and weaken the intensity of the shock wave, thus reducing the wave resistance. At supersonic flight, the shock wave is unavoidable, but small aspect ratio wing, delta wing, and wing wing are used to reduce the wave resistance comparison.It is good.
15.The flight speed (1) minimum horizontal velocity is the minimum speed that a plane can maintain straight and straight at a certain altitude. (2) maximum flat speed is the maximum horizontal flight speed is the plane’s horizontal straight line balance flight, in a certain flight distance, the engine thrust maximum state, the aircraft can
The maximum speed of flight (3) cruising speed refers to the speed of the engine when the fuel consumption per kilometer is minimum. The cruising speed is obviously greater than the minimum horizontal flight speed, which is smaller than the maximum horizontal flight speed. The 2. voyage refers to the maximum flight speed at which the aircraft can travel at a cruising speed.Remote。 It is an indicator of how far a plane can fly. 3. the static ceiling is an indicator of how high a plane can fly. The static lift of the aircraft means
The aircraft can do the maximum height of the horizontal straight flight. 4. take-off and landing performance (its target includes two parts: one is takeoff and landing distance, two is taking off and landing and landing speed) (1) the takeoff process is an accelerated flight process, which includes ground acceleration and acceleration.Up to two stages of safety. F-22’s takeoff distance: 610 meters (2) the landing process of the aircraft’s landing performance is a deceleration flight process, which includes five stages of sliding, leveling, flat, falling, landing, and landing. Landing and skating of F-22Distance:
914 M 16.1) aircraft can be classified into aircraft, spacecrafts, rockets and missiles according to large categories. 2) in 1903, the Wright brothers of the United States made the world’s first successfully powered, maneuverable aircraft. 3) before 1957, the Soviet Union succeeded in launching the world’s firstA man-made earth satellite, I
The first man-made earth satellite was launched in 1970. 4) in 1961, former Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin first entered space and returned safely to the ground. Shenzhou five, the first manned spacecraft in China, was launched in 2003. The astronauts are Yang Liwei..
5) 1969 In, American astronaut Neal Armstrong succeeded in landing the first moon on Apollo 11 spacecraft. China’s code named Chang’e project was launched in 2004. 6) drag on aircraft can be divided into frictional resistance and differential pressure when flying at low speed.Resistance, induced resistance and interference resistance. 7) aviation gas turbine engine can be divided into turbojet engine, turbofan engine, turboprop engine and turbo shaft engine. 8) the helicopter is mainly composed of rotor, tail rotor, fuselage and landing gear.The composition of the equal parts. 9) gyroscope has the characteristics of fixed axis and precession. 10) in 1939, German Zeppelin designed and manufactured the first rigid airship. 11) Feng made a factory in San Francisco in 1907. 12) German first in 1939First developed a He-178 aircraft equipped with jet engines. It is the first in the world.
Jet aircraft. 13) China’s first jet fighter is the JV 5 aircraft. Annihilate 6 aircraft is China’s first generation supersonic fighter. 14) the atmosphere:
1 Troposphere. 2 stratosphere. 3 middle layer. 4 the ionosphere. 5 escape layer. 15) the classification of resistance: 1 friction resistance. 2 pressure difference resistance. 3 induced resistance. 4 interference resistance 16) lift coefficient curve, airfoil is different, no lift angle of attack is not the same size.The change is generally -4 ~0 degrees. The non lift angle of attack of the symmetrical airfoil is 0 degrees. 17) the main flight performance of the aircraft: 1 maximum horizontal flight speed. 2 cruise speed. 3 climbing rate. 4 lift. 5 voyage and renewal time. 6 combat radius. 18) flyThe operability of aircraft: the operation of aircraft in the air is through the manipulation of pneumatic rudder – elevator.
The rudder and the aileron are carried out. 19) General requirements for aircraft structure: 1 aerodynamic requirements. 2 the strength and stiffness requirements of the aircraft. 3 the craft requirements of the aircraft. 4 the use and maintenance requirements of the aircraft. 20) the main function of the tail of the aircraft: to ensure the longitudinal (pitch) of the aircraft.And lateral (yaw) balance, and make the aircraft in longitudinal and transverse two directions have the necessary stability and manipulation.
17.The propeller generated aerodynamic force is the same as the aerodynamic force generated by the wing. The difference is that the relative movement between the former and the air is formed by its rotation, and the latter is formed by forward surge.
18.The turbofan engine has the following points: 1 the thrust is large. 2 the total air flow rate of turbofan engine is greatly improved. 19. airborne equipment includes: aviation instrument, navigation equipment, automatic control equipment, communication equipment, radar equipment, high-altitude rescue equipment and aviation weapon system.
20.Flight speed and height measurement: 1 air speed meter:. 2 flight altimeter. 3 up and down speed meter. 4 atmospheric data system.
The center of gravity in front of the focus is a necessary condition to ensure the longitudinal safety of the model glider. The farther the center of gravity is before the focus, the better the longitudinal safety.
Part 1. of the Aeronautical Science Contest. The instrument that flies outside the earth’s atmosphere will become an aircraft. (a) correct 2. aviation refers to manned or unmanned aerial vehicles traveling outside the earth’s atmosphere. (3.) space in atmosphere is manned or unloaded.The navigation of a human spacecraft at the high altitude of the earth. (error) the outer atmosphere 4. is closely related to aviation and space activities because it has to go through the atmosphere. (5.) in the modern high-tech war, communication is an important means to win the war.It is the main activity of military aviation. (answer) the error (answer) to seize the air power 6. glider refers to the fixed wing aircraft with no fuel system and heavier than the air. (error) power device 7. light helicopter generally adopts buoy landing gear. (answer) error (answer) skidMost of the 8. landing gear are skid landing gear. (answer) the wrong wheel landing gear 9., the United States’ “the man” is a stealth helicopter. (answer) right 10. the V – 22 “Osprey” developed by the US Bell Co belongs to the tilting rotorcraft. (answer) rightIt is true that 11. of mankind’s exploration and experiments on flight began with imitation of flying birds. Right. Before the birth of the 12. aircraft, Li Lin and Dahl of Germany made outstanding contributions in handling and stabilizing. (answer) right 13. American F 80 aircraft is piston warfare.Bucket machine. (answer) the wrong answer was 14.1947 years in October 14th, and the US F – 100 aircraft broke through the “sound barrier” for the first time. (answer) X – 1 research machine 15.1969 years, the British and French co developed the “Concord” supersonic tour.The flight test flight was successful. (answer) correct 16.. The largest passenger aircraft in the world is A380 at present. Correct. The first use of the 17 stealth aircraft is B – 2. (a) error (answer) F – 11718. is equipped with long-range search radar and corresponding data.The electronic jammer is used for searching and monitoring air and sea targets. (a) mistake (answer) the AWACS 19. jamming the enemy radar and communication equipment to the military aircraft is the electronic jammer. (answer) the correct 20. is devoted to collecting enemy military intelligence.The machine is a antisubmarine. (error) reconnaissance plane 21., in the modern local wars, the embryonic form of the air war was first shown in the Vietnam War. Error (answer) the Gulf War
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22.In the modern local war, the first real air war was the Kosovo war. (answer) correct 23. in the Afghan war, unmanned aircraft first launched weapons to the target, marking the concept of unmanned aerial warfare platform has entered the stage of actual combat. (answer) correct 24.The typical representative of the fourth generation fighter is the F – 22 of the United States. (answer) right 25. the United States will replace F – 16 with F – 35 in the future. The right 26. X – 29 is an aircraft with a forward swept wing. (answer) correct 27. from the surface of the earthThe minimum speed required for an aircraft to orbit the earth is called the second cosmic velocity. (1) the first cosmic velocity 28. the minimum velocity of the aircraft that is launched from the earth’s surface is the second cosmic velocity. (answer) right 29. aircraft launches from the earth’s surface.The minimum speed required to fly out of the solar system is called the fourth cosmic velocity. (answer) error (answer) third cosmic speed 30., the core of space technology is rocket propulsion technology. The right 31. spacecraft is also called a space vehicle. Unlike natural celestial bodies, it can be changed according to people’s will.Function。 (answer) the correct 32. can be used as a space reconnaissance and surveillance platform, a space weapon test base, and a military manned spaceflight system for the future military base of the heavenly army. (answer) the space station 33. the largest number of spacecrafts are space probes. (answer) a mistake (answer)Artificial earth satellite 34. the first and only reusable launch vehicle in the world is the spacecraft. (answer) error (answer) the space shuttle 35. is currently using the earth’s moving orbiting satellite as the communication satellite. (answer) error (answer) geostationary orbit satellite 36J. 5 belongs to the first generation of our supersonic fighter. (answer) the mistake is to destroy the 637. generation of the second generation supersonic fighter. (f) error (answer). 7. 38. annihilate.The three generation of fighters is. (answer) error (answer) J10 39. China’s J-7 aircraft is also known as annihilate II. (40.2002) in January, China started to develop a new type of vortex suitable for the take-off and landing of China’s western plateau airports and the operation of complex routes.The fan – line passenger plane project is ARJ21. (answer) right 41. the main landing field of our manned spaceship is in Sichuan. Inner Mongolia 42. China’s first sounding rocket is the “Beijing” No. 1 developed by the teachers and students of Beijing Aviation Academy. (answer) a mistake (answer)”Beijing” No. 2
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43 .The order of the atmosphere from low to high is stratospheric, tropospheric, thermospheric, and intermediate. (error) the temperature of the troposphere, stratosphere, middle layer and thermosphere of the 44. troposphere has no significant change with height. (answer) the error reduces the 45. stratospheric temperature with increasing altitude.And lower. (a) the error is basically unchanged and the 46. stratospheric atmosphere is mainly in vertical direction. (answer) the temperature in the horizontal direction of the 47. middle layer rises with height. (a) error (answer) down 48. hot layer temperature with height.Rise and fall. (answer) the error raised the outer layer of the 49. atmosphere is the stratosphere. (answer) the escape layer. The flight environment of the 50. aircraft is the whole universe. (answer) error (answer) atmospheric flight environment 51. “Fan Ailun radiation belt”The ionosphere in the earth’s space environment. (answer) error (answer) the magnetosphere 52. in the earth’s space environment, according to the continuum hypothesis, the aerodynamic force produced by the fluid on the surface of the aircraft is the behavior of a single molecule. (answer) the result of the interaction of large molecules: the compressible force of 53. fluids.The greater the shrinkage, the greater the speed of sound. (answer) the smaller the error (the answer), 54., for gas, the viscosity increases with the increase of temperature. 55.. The fluid that ignores viscosity is compressible. (error) the ideal fluid 56. density invariant fluid isIdeal fluid. (answer) the incompressible fluid 57. the larger the Maher number, the smaller the degree of compression caused by the flight. (a) the bigger the error, the greater the 58.. When oil is transported by pipeline, the oil heating can reduce the flow loss and save energy.This is related to the continuity of the liquid. (answer) the viscosity 59. Reynolds number can be used as an indicator of the degree of compression of the air. (answer) the answer is Maher number 60.. When the plane is flying at constant speed, the lift is equal to the thrust of the engine. (Error (answer) error (answer) gravity 61. uses the plane to keep the plane still, and the air flows across the plane in the opposite direction at the same speed. The aerodynamic effect of the air is exactly the same, and the principle of its application is continuity theorem. (answer) the 62. principles of relative motion principle.The continuity equation of the body follows the law of conservation of momentum. (q) the mass flow rate increases when the 63. airstream flows continuously in the contraction pipe. (answer) the error decreases by 64.. According to the continuity equation of incompressible fluid, the cross section of the flow tube becomes larger and the average velocity increases.
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(The 65. Bernoulli theorem is the application of the law of conservation of mass in the flow of fluid. (answer) the law of conservation of energy of the error (answer) 66. When the low velocity flow is flowing in a cross section pipe, the total pressure of the air flow will increase when the pipe is expanded. (answer) the error (answer) whenWhen the flow velocity is expanded, the flow velocity of air flow will reduce the flow of 67. supersonic flow in a variable cross section pipe, and the change of density caused by the change of cross section area is dominant. (68.) right before the aircraft stall, the angle of attack increases, and the lift decreases. (answer) a 69 increase in the error (answer)The main purpose of flaps is to reduce resistance. (error) increase the lift 70. friction resistance is the resistance generated by the viscosity of the atmosphere. Correct 71.. Reducing the windward area of the aircraft and designing the streamlined aircraft are effective measures to reduce the viscous frictional resistance.. (error) the resistance of pressure differential 72. is the frictional resistance produced by the lift force. (a) error (induced) drag 73. the aircraft uses winglet to reduce viscous frictional resistance. (a) error (answer) induced resistance 74, GPS positioningIn the process, the coordinate parameters of the aircraft are known parameters. (error) the position of the satellite 75. the retrofitting of the aircraft is to reduce the viscous frictional resistance. (answer) the error interferes with resistance 76.. The fundamental reason for the phenomenon is the vibration generated by the aircraft during flight.It was caused by movement. (error) the shock resistance 77. is larger than that of a low subsonic aircraft. (answer) the error is 78. smaller than that of a low subsonic aircraft. The tip of a supersonic aircraft wing is larger. (answer) the error (answer) is smaller79. compared with low subsonic aircraft, supersonic aircraft fuselage has a relatively long slender body. (answer) the right 80. is larger than the lower subsonic aircraft and the supersonic aircraft wing has a larger sweep angle. (81.) the relative thickness of supersonic aircraft wings is larger than that of low subsonic aircraft. ((82.) in the motion of supersonic disturbance source, the disturbance area of the disturbance source is in the left half plane of the “boundary wave”. (answer) the error in the Maher cone 83. when the Maher number of the maximum velocity point on the wing surface is equal to 1, the corresponding incoming Maher number is greater than 1.. (a) the error is less than 184.. When supersonic airflow passes through the shock wave, the velocity of the airstream will decrease. The right 85. shock always moves forward at the same speed as the airplane flies. Correct. 86. wing design of supersonic aircraft.Sharp shape to reduce pressure difference resistance. (answer) error (answer) shock wave resistance
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87 .In the case of low speed flight, the swept wing is usually chosen. (answer) error (answer) high aspect ratio 88. straight in high subsonic flying civil aircraft, usually choose swept wings to delay the shock generation. (89.) under the condition of supersonic flight, the trapezoidal wing can be selected.Reduce the wave resistance. (answer) the wrong triangle is the 90. flight of an airplane. (91.) for a military aircraft, the speed of flight generally refers to the maximum speed of flight. (answer) error (answer) maximum flat speed 92. for civil flight.For aircraft, the speed of flight generally refers to the maximum speed of flight. (answer) the cruising speed is 93.. When the aircraft reaches theoretical static limit, the plane’s horizontal speed is zero at this time. (error) the vertical rise speed is zero 94.. When the combat aircraft needs to increase rapidly, it will come to a higher speed.When improving the accuracy of bombing and firing, the usual measure is subduction. (95.) when a combat aircraft needs to gain rapid superiority, the usual measure is to jump. (correct) 96. when a combat aircraft needs to change the direction of flight and increase the altitude at the same time.The measures taken are the somersaults. Before the center of gravity of the 97. plane is turning the center of the center of the plane, the aircraft is disturbed and the head is upside down. Right. 98., as long as there is a sideslip, the aircraft will have a directional stability torque. (answer) correct99. the use of pelvic fins is to ensure that the aircraft has sufficient pitching static stability. (error) the direction static stability 100. adopts the wing’s reverse angle to make the aircraft have enough pitching static stability. (answer) the direction static stability is 101..Military fighters should be more demanding in terms of mobility. (102.) correct. The driver swings to the left or to the right when the joystick is controlled. The elevator will deflect. (103.) the driver pushes ahead on his left foot or on his right foot. The elevator of the airplane will take place.Deflection. (error) the rudder 104. aileron mainly controls the pitch motion of the aircraft. (error) the rolling motion of 105.. The elevator controls the pitch motion of the aircraft. The correct 106. direction rudder mainly controls the yaw motion of the aircraft.(107.) the elevator is on the wing of the aircraft. (answer) the mistake. The 108. tail rudder is on the wing of the aircraft. (answer) error (answer)
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109 .The aileron is on the outside of the rear edge of the aircraft wing. The correct 110. flap is usually on the outside edge of the rear wing of the aircraft wing. (111.) the inside of the rear edge is deflected by the pilot driving the joystick, and the aircraft produces pitch motion. (answer) correct 112Ablation method is an important method to eliminate shock wave resistance. (error) thermal error 113. the change of helicopter pulling force is mainly achieved by adjusting the rotor speed. (error) the blade pitch 114.. To make the helicopter move forward, the tilting cone of the rotor must be enlarged.. (answer) error (answer) in the maneuvering of 115. helicopters forward. The blade lift cycle is changed, and the well is caused by the total distance control. (answer) error (distance) control 116, the installation of blades in the operation of helicopters.The angle increases or decreases at the same time, thus changing the size of the rotor tension is controlled by total distance. (answer) in the operation of the correct 117. helicopter, the size of the thrust (or pull) of the tail rotor is changed to control the direction of the course. (answer) error (answer) foot manipulation 118.The turboshaft engine is more suitable for supersonic aircraft. (answer) error. The engine used on the helicopter 119. tactical missile is a liquid rocket engine. (answer) error (answer) solid rocket motor 120.1883 years, the advent of the rocket engine, for the first aircraft.The success of the flight test created conditions. Error (answer) the piston type 121. aircraft break through the sound barrier and make the flying speed of the aircraft several times as fast as possible to benefit from the combined engine. (answer) the error (answer) air jet 122, as the basis for the development of the spacecraft, andMankind’s dream of flying out of the earth and flying into the universe has become a reality thanks to the emergence of rocket engines. The right 123. piston engine can not directly generate thrust to make the aircraft advance. (a) correct 124. the main reason why air jet engines can not be used for space flight.It depends on oxygen in the air as oxidant. The right 125. piston engine is currently mainly used for supersonic aircraft. (answer) the small, low-speed aircraft, the 126. piston engine uses aviation kerosene. (answer) error (answer) aero gasoline 127. in the working process of piston engine, internal energy can be transformed into mechanical energy in the intake stroke. (answer) the expansion stroke 128. the number of ignition and combustion in the piston engine cylinder is usually dozens of times per second. (answer) right 129. during the Second World War.The maximum speed of piston engine reached 816 km / h at 1O00m height.
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(Correct 130.. Now the most widely used aero engine is turbo ramjet. (answer) error (answer) the unit thrust of the 131. turbojet engine of a gas turbine engine refers to the thrust produced by the air per unit volume into the engine. (answer) a mistake (answer) listThe thrust weight ratio of the 132. turbojet engine in the bit flow is the ratio of the engine thrust to its structural weight under the maximum working state of the ground. Correct. The unit fuel consumption rate of a 133. turbojet engine is the amount of fuel consumed per hour per unit of power generated. (answer) unit of error (answer)The thrust inlet with 134. head intake should be attached to the adsorption device. The 135. subsonic inlet is generally diffused. (136.) the adjustment cone function in supersonic inlet is to change the direction of air flow. (The error produces an oblique shock and reduces the airflow speed 137.. The nozzle shape suitable for subsonic flight is diffusion. (error) the contraction ratio of the 138. centrifugal compressor is less than 10. (answer) correct 139. centrifugal pressure air pressureWhen compared to an axial compressor, the pressure ratio is large. (answer) when the error (answer) 140. turbojet engines work, the first time the velocity kinetic energy is changed to pressure can occur in the compressor. (error) the inlet of the 141. axial flow compressor.The role of the film is to increase the speed of air flow. (answer) error (answer) the direction of changing the air flow, the 142. axis flow compressor is pressurized by the action of the impeller. (answer) the passage of the wrong (answer) stator and the rotor of the rotor 143. axis flow compressor rotor blade is a diffusion form.(answer) the correct 144. turbojet engine fuel is aviation kerosene. (answer) the correct 145. swirl is the part of the turbojet combustor. The main function of the 146. nozzles is to deliver fuel. (answer) error (answer) improve fuelAtomization quality 147. the main reason for the air flow into the combustion chamber is divided into two strands is to make the airflow flow more smoothly. The main function of the 148. swirler is atomizing fuel. (a) mistake (answer) steady ignition 149. turbo jet startThe part of the shirt L that can produce mechanical energy is a turbine. Correct. The passage of the turbine guide vanes of the 150. turbojet engine is diffused. (error) contraction (151.) the pressure of turbojet engine increases after turbine. (answer) a mistake (answer)The rate is increasing
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152 .The afterburner is located in front of the turbine. Error (answer) error (answer) the rear 153. supersonic aircraft engine behind the turbine is suitable to use the Lawal nozzle tail nozzle (answer) correct 154.1937 year April, the first aircraft ignition first made by FRET whiter in EnglandThe gas turbine engine is a turbojet engine. Correct. The speed of 155. turboprop engine is 500-700km/h. (a) the reason why the 156. propeller aircraft is not suitable for high-speed flight is mainly due to the insufficient propeller stiffness. (answer) wrongFrom the general point of view, the turbofan engine becomes a turbojet engine when the bypass ratio of the turbofan engine is reduced to zero. 157.. (158.) in a broad sense, the bypass ratio of turbofan engine increases to a certain extent (usually greater than 25).Turbo propeller engine and propeller fan engine. The right 159. turbofan fan is driven by a high-pressure turbine. (error) the ratio of turbofan engines used in low pressure turbine 160. to fighter planes is generally higher than that on civil aircraft.Big. (answer) the error is that the bypass ratio of the afterburner turbofan engine selected by the small 161. fighter is generally less than 1. (162.) correct. The engine of the British “Kite” assault machine is a turbofan fan engine. (answer) a mistake (answer) vertical and down 163. the difference between ramjet and gas turbine engine is that they have no special compressor. (correct) the right engine is the most powerful when the 164. turbojet is at takeoff. The right 165. military aircraft’s afterburner state is equivalent to the take-off condition. (answerThe thrust of the correct 166. engine cruise state is about 65% to 75% of the take-off thrust. Correct. The most economical working condition of the 167. engine is cruising. Correct 168.. The working condition of the engine used for aircraft’s long climb and high speed flat flight is rated.State. (right) the thrust of the 169. engine slow state is about 4% of the take-off thrust. (170.) if the quality of the propellant is given, the higher the impulse is, the greater the total engine will be. Correct 171.. Liquid rocket engine is currently the most widely used.It is a single component propulsion system. (answer) the mistake is that the double nozzle 172. rocket engine’s nozzle is contracted to ensure the minimum loss of airflow. (a) error (contraction) – expanding 173. liquid oxygen as a thruster is generally applied to the launch vehicle of spacecraft.
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(The correct 174. solid rocket motor eliminates the combustor compared with the liquid rocket engine. (error) the thrust propellant delivery system 175. solid rocket combustor temperature is generally higher than that of the liquid rocket combustor. (answer) the error (answer) is generally lower 176, in the GPS system, after collecting all the data, the main part of the operation is the master station. Correct. The specific impulse of 177. solid rocket motor is generally higher than that of liquid rocket engine. (answer) the error is lower. 178. the pitch and yaw motion of a rocket is dependent on its flight.Control of the swinging of the nozzle. Correct 179.. The rolling motion of a rocket is controlled by a side nozzle jet. The right 180. solid liquid hybrid engine uses solid oxidant and liquid combustion agent. (answer) the solid burning agent and the oxidant of the liquid.181. the rocket for environmental exploration, scientific research and technical test of near surface space belongs to the investigation rocket. (error) the sounding rocket 182. life support system needs to measure cockpit temperature parameters. (answer) right 183. temperature measurement usually adopts direct measurement method.Some performance or state parameters related to temperature are measured by some objects. (yes) the correct 184. resistance temperature sensor uses the function relationship between resistance and temperature to measure the temperature. The right 185. thermocouple temperature sensor uses the free end effect to measure the temperature.Degree. (error) the measurement of the 186. force of thermoelectric effect can be indirectly obtained by measuring the displacement of rigid objects. (187.) the deformation of an elastic object is measured by using the elastic element as the sensing element when the pressure is measured by the deformation measurement method. (answer) rightThe 188. angle of attack sensor is a sensor for measuring the angle between the chord of the wing and the horizontal plane. (error) the aircraft axis is relative to the airflow 189.. Generally, the attack angle sensors are mounted on the front end of the aircraft. (answer) the correct 190. pressure altimeter is the use standardThe relationship between quasi atmospheric pressure and velocity is used to measure flight altitude. (error) the relationship between the standard atmospheric pressure and height. 191. the absolute height of the landing place must be measured when the aircraft takes off and touchdown. (answer) the error is relatively high. 192. the aircraft is flying at low altitude.The relative height of flight must be measured when bombing, photographing and other tasks. (answer) the true height of error (193.) the absolute height required to describe the flight performance of an aircraft. (correct) 194.. The following instruments or systems can measure the height of the flight is the air data system. (answer) correct195. the simplest way to measure the speed of the following flight is the pressure measurement.
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(Correct 196.. The method of measuring errors in the following flight speed measurements is infrared measurement. (error) the acceleration integral measurement method 197. the thin rod at the front end of the aircraft nose is the aircraft antenna. (answer) error (answer) air speed tube 198The speed meter measured the speed of the flight. (error) the high speed change rate of 199.. The relative accuracy of the following flight speed measurement methods is the radar measurement method. (right) 200. gyroscopes have two important characteristics: fixed axis and forward. (answer) a mistakeThe direction of the 201. gyroscope is that the rotor with high speed has the characteristics of keeping its axis unchanged in the inertial space. (error) the drift of fixed axis 202. gyroscope is caused by unstable rotor speed. (answer) a mistake (answer)External disturbance torque 203. the angle between the horizontal axis of the aircraft and the space shuttle and the earth’s Antarctic is the heading angle, or the true heading angle. An error (answer) the angle between the longitudinal axis and the earth’s Arctic 204. gyroscopes is a flight instrument that uses the gyroscope’s characteristics to measure the plane’s flat flight and the inclination angle of the tilted side.. (error) the pitch and tilt attitude angle of the 205. gyroscope is based on the North meridian. (error) the vertical line of the 206. aircraft cockpit display has two types of pointer and dial. (answer) error (answer) mechanical and electronic207. the electronic display converts electrical signals into mechanical instructions to display the required information content. The process of converting electrical signals into light signals 208. to guide the moving bodies of aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, and ships from one place (such as starting points) to their destinations, called homing.. (error) the navigation 209. automatic lateral instrument belongs to the lateral radio navigation system. The right 210. omnidirectional beacon system belongs to the ranging radio navigation system. (a) error direction finding radio navigation 211. omnidirectional beacon system (VOR) from the ground.The surface guidance aircraft provides the orientation information of the aircraft based on the east to meridian at the location of the navigation station to determine the orientation of the aircraft relative to the navigation platform. (error) the north direction meridian 212. omnidirectional beacon system is oriented by measuring the amplitude of the radio waves. (answer) a mistake (answer)The phase difference between the reference phase signal and the variable phase signal 213. is called the radio altimeter or the radar altimeter by measuring the time required to determine the altitude of the flight between the aircraft and the navigation station. (answer) the time required for radio waves to travel between the aircraft and the ground.214. the remote radio navigation system is lateral radio navigation. (answer) error (answer) ranging difference radio navigation 215, inertial navigation by measuring the acceleration of the aircraft through operation to obtain the speed and position of the aircraft at the time of the integrated technology. (answer) correct
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216、Inertial navigation needs to measure the acceleration of aircraft, so its mechanical foundation is Newton’s first law. Newton’s second law 217. Platform used in platform inertial navigation system is virtual platform. (error) answer: electromechanical gyroscope platform 218, strapdown inertial navigation.The platform used for the navigation system is the mechatronic gyroscope platform. (answer) error (answer) digital platform 219, in the current world of several satellite navigation systems, the best performance, the most complete function is the United States satellite global positioning system. (answer) correct 220, GPS system, detection satelliteAnd meteorological data, and preliminary processing is part of the navigation satellite. (error) the 221 and cross shaped wings of the monitoring station are usually used for cruise missiles in the circumferential arrangement along the missile body. (answer) wrong (answer) highly maneuverable missiles 222, cruise missiles generally use piston engines.. (answer) error (answer) air jet 223, ballistic missile flight process is the starting stage by the engine thrust forward, the engine stops working, by inertial flight. (224) the tactical ballistic missile is a ballistic missile with a range of less than 1 000km. (answer) rightIndeed, 225, the bullets of the mother warhead are not equipped with propulsion systems and guidance systems, and the multiple warheads belong to the cluster type. (answer) the correct 226, the mother bullet assembly propulsion system and the guidance system, and the multi warhead of the sub warhead without propulsion system and guidance system belongs to the propulsion type. (answer) error (answer) Division227, multiple warheads and propulsion systems and guidance systems with multiple warheads are clustered. (answer) error (answer) maneuverability 228, commercial aviation refers to the commercial and commercial (postal) transportation on domestic and international routes. (answer) right 229, civil aviation means for the publicFlight activities such as affairs, industry, agriculture, forestry and pastoral fisheries, geological exploration, remote sensing, public security, meteorological, environmental protection, ambulance, commuter, sports and sightseeing. (answer) the general aviation 230, any aircraft must rise to the air, there must be a rise that can overcome the air drag.The force. (answer) the error (answer) self gravity 231, the aircraft is able to fly for a long time in the air except for the lift must have the static buoyancy. (answer) the error (answer) thrust 232, the main body of the balloon is the air bag. (answer) the correct 233 and early twentieth Century,The German Zeppelin company made a rigid airship with a length of more than 100 meters and a volume of more than ten thousand cubic meters. (235) after the first World War, civil aviation developed rapidly, and civil aviation started from tourism. (answer) error (answer) air mail 236, 1942, GermanyThe successful development of the V 2 rocket has become the first ballistic missile powered by a rocket engine in the world. (answer) right 237, in the space exploration of overcoming gravity and entering space, American scientist Goddard put forward the principle of the flight of the rocket and derives the need for the gravity of the earth.A cosmic velocity.
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(Answer 238) the instruments and equipment used on the earth satellite to realize the purpose of satellite application or to complete scientific research tasks are called mechanical equipment. (answer) the payload 239. The Shenzhou series spacecraft takes about 200 minutes to orbit the earth. (answer) a mistake (answer)90) 240, the heaviest rocket in the world and the most powerful thrust is the heavy-duty heavy-duty universal launch vehicle. Russia’s “energy” No. 241 and October 26, 2003, China’s first independent knowledge production.The first test flight of the light aircraft “Xiao Hawk” 500, which is suitable for private business, fills the gap in the production of 4~5 light and small aircraft in the field of general aviation in China. (answer) right 242, the engine of ARJ21 developed by China is a turboprop engine.(answer) error (answer) turbofan engine 243, 1980, China introduced the French patent production of straight 5 helicopters, is a new type of multi-purpose helicopter representing the advanced level in the late 1970s. (answer) error (answer) straight 9244, IThe air force of the state garrison troops uses helicopters as direct 5 military helicopters. The answer is straight 9245 and the 10 helicopter is the first helicopter designed and manufactured in China and has its own intellectual property rights. (answer) error (answer) 11246. Imitation in China.The P – 2 missile is a short-range ground to ground missile. (answer) right 247 and November 5, 1960, “Beijing” 2 was successfully tested in an experimental base in Northwest China, which is an important milestone in the history of military weaponry and equipment in China. (answer) a mistake (answer)The imitated P 2 missile was launched in 248 and October 27, 1966. Our short-range surface to surface missile loaded with a real nuclear warhead was launched from the experimental site and was successfully tested. (answer) the short range ground to surface missile 249. Our country has completely mastered the underwater submarine of the missile nuclear submarine.The mark of launching technology is that our conventional power submarine successfully launched our first solid propellant strategic missile from underwater. (answer) error (answer) our country’s nuclear powered submarine launch the solid submarine missile finalize experiment from underwater to achieve success 250, to meet the needs of the international satellite launch market.China has developed the “Long March” 1 Ding Yunzai rocket called “long two bundle”. (answer) the “Long March” 2 E 251 and the “Fengyun” 1 meteorological satellite belong to the remote sensing satellite when the earth orbit returns. (answer) error (answer) sun synchronous orbit meteorological satellite252. The “Fengyun” 2 meteorological satellite belongs to the geostationary meteorological satellite. (error) the geosynchronous orbit meteorological satellite 253. is at 10km height from the earth’s surface, and the pressure is about 1/2 of sea level pressure. (answer) error (answer) 1/4254. at the height of 10km from the earth’s surface, air density is equivalent to 1/2 of the air density of the Yu Hai plane. (1/3) 255. of the atmosphere is the largest troposphere affected by the earth’s surface. (right) 256.. The atmosphere in the middle layer is mainly plumb.The direction and horizontal direction of flow.
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257.When the other conditions are constant, the greater the velocity difference, the smaller the internal friction between the fluid. (answer) the greater the error (answer) the greater the 258. due to the viscosity of the water, the water flow at the wall of the sink is zero when the water flows steadily in the sink. (answer) the correct 259. spoiler isThe function of the 260. vortex generator is to eliminate the interference resistance. (answer) error (answer) the error (answer) the friction resistance of the 261. attached layer is greater than that of the laminar layer. (answer) error (answer) turbulence layer 262. attached surfaceThe less frictional resistance in the layer is the turbulent layer. (answer) the error (answer) laminar layer 263. is replaced by a curved plate with a front edge to replace the plate to eliminate the shock resistance. (answer) the error (answer) the surface layer separation of the 264. aircraft using the transonic area law technique is to reduce the viscosity.Friction resistance. (answer) error (answer) interference resistance 265., the smaller the flow Reynolds number, the less the effect of air viscosity. (answer) the greater the error (answer), the more the 266. is compared with the turbulence, the flow Reynolds number of the laminar flow is larger. (answer) the error (answer) is less than 267. ideal.The flow Reynolds number of the fluid tends to zero. (answer) the error (answer) tends to infinity 268. aircraft flutters. The reason is the lateral static stability. (answer) error (answer) the lateral static stability effect is too large 269. directly influence the orbit of the near earth orbit satellite and the space station.The perturbation of the life of the earth is the earth’s oblate. (answer) the error (answer) the atmospheric drag 270. the earth flat rate perturbation refers to the effect of the two stage of the north and the South on the satellite movement. (answer) the error (answer) the 271. spacecraft of the equatorial uplift can change the orbit in accordance with the requirements of the control system.This objective track change is called the orbital maneuver. (answer) a thrust impulse is applied when the correct 272. original orbit is intersected with the final orbit (or tangent), so that the spacecraft is transferred from the original orbit to the final orbit, which is called the orbit transfer. (answer) error (answer) orbit change.When the 273. original orbit is not intersected or disconnected, at least two thrust impulse can be applied to make the spacecraft enter the final orbit from the initial orbit. This situation is called the orbit change. (answer) error (answer) orbit transfer 274. geostationary satellite should be used to launch the orbit.The error (answer) error (answer) transition into orbit 275. two spacecraft through a series of orbital maneuvers, so that the two spacecraft at the same time, at the same speed to reach the same position in the space, this is the orbit rendezvous. (answer) error (answer) orbit correction 276. the launch entry mode suitable for the launch of low orbit spacecraft is direct rail entry. (answer) in the correct 277. launch, the high orbit spacecraft should adopt the way of launching the orbit is to accelerate the orbit.
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(Error (answer) error (answer) slip into orbit 278. ring moon detector should adopt the way of launching into orbit is sliding into orbit. (answer) error (answer) transition into orbit 279. when the spin speed of the satellite is slower in order to increase the spin speed, a magnetic coil is usually installed on the satellite. (answer) error (answer)The speed nozzle 280. is to correct the satellite spin axis, the satellite usually has to install the gyro rotor. (answer) error (answer) magnetic coil 281. in order to prevent the swinging of the satellite spin axis, the satellite usually has to install magnetic coils. (answer) error (answer) dampers 282. meThe first satellite of the country “Dongfang red” 1 and the experimental communication satellite “Dongfang red” launched in 1984 are all spin stabilized satellites. (answer) correct 283. our “practice” 1 experimental satellite attitude stabilization control method is spin stability. (answer)Correct 284, the aircraft can be divided into three categories, of which aircraft is one of them. (285) in the following aircraft, balloons and airships are lighter than air. (286) in the aircraft, the rotor aircraft is heavier than the air. (answer) right287. Aircraft is a fixed aircraft. (answer) correct 284, hot air balloon and hot airship can be used as sports vehicles. Right. In the 285 and twentieth Century, in the 70-80’s, besides the United States, China and the USSR also launched spaceflight.Aircraft development program, but only the US space shuttle was put into use. (answer) error (answer) France, the Soviet Union, Japan 286, artificial satellite can be divided into scientific satellite, application satellite and experimental satellite three types, communication satellite, meteorological satellite belongs to the application satellite. (answer) correct 287,According to whether it orbits the earth, the unmanned spacecraft is divided into artificial earth satellites and space probes. (288) the manned spacecraft can independently carry out space activities, or it can be used as a “ferry” between the ground and the space station. (289) the size of the manned spacecraft is smaller.The restrictions on the amount of expendable materials do not have the capacity to replenishment, and can not be repeated. (answer) correct 290, orbital chamber is an astronaut’s living place on orbit, equipped with various experimental instruments and equipment. (answer) a mistake. Workplaces 291, docking cabin usually installed and propellingThe system, power supply and gas supply equipment play a role of service guarantee for the spacecraft. (answer) a mistake. Service module 292. When the spacecraft returns, not all the cabins are returned. Only the re-entry module returns to the ground, and the other cabins remain in space. (answer) correct 293 and October 1956On the 8 day, China’s first rocket missile research institute, the Fifth Research Institute of the Ministry of national defense, was founded, and Tsien Hsueshen served as Dean. Correct. In 294 and April 1, 1968, China’s Aerospace Medical Engineering Institute was founded and began to train astronauts and carry out manned space medical engineering research.Study. (right) 295, January 10, 2001 morning, Shenzhou I spacecraft launched successfully. The spaceship returned to the ground nearly 7 days later. (answer) a mistake. Shenzhou two, Shenzhou 296 and Shenzhou four are equipped with human metabolic simulator and anthropomorphic physiological signal equipment.And artificial dummy can simulate the important physiological activity parameters of astronauts such as respiration and blood circulation. The spacecraft is working normally, and all the scheduled test targets are achieved. The test is successful. (answer) a mistake. Shenzhou three, 297 and December 2002, Shenzhou five was under zero.29 degrees Celsius low temperature test, at 0:30 on the 30 day successfully launched, breaking through the history of China’s low-temperature launch. In January 5, 2003, the spacecraft returned safely and completed all the scheduled tests. Shenzhou four 298, GodThe 21 hour and 23 minute space travel of boat six indicates that China has become the third country in the world to carry out manned space activities independently after Russia and the United States. (answer) a mistake. On the 299 and 27 days of Shenzhou five, Zhai Zhigang was dressed in the “flying” extravehicular spacesuit developed by our country.Under the assistance of Liu Boming, wearing spacesuit in Russia’s “Sea Hawk” capsule, he carried out 19 minutes and 35 seconds of extravehicular activity. China has subsequently become the third country in the world to master the technology of space extravehicular activities. (correct) 300. Manned spaceflight involves many new technologies.Domains, including modern mechanics, astronomy, earth science, space medicine, space science, as well as systems engineering, automatic control, computer, propulsion technology, communications, remote sensing, new energy, new materials, microelectronics, optoelectronics and other countries in these fields are strictly confidential and spend more money.I can’t buy it. The development of manned spaceflight actually reflects the overall scientific and technological level of a country. (answer) correct

3.2 The basic characteristics of gyroscopes
The two basic characteristics of a two degree of freedom gyroscope are precession and fixed axis.
3.2.1 The precession of gyroscopes
Simply speaking, the precession of gyroscope is when the gyroscope is subjected to external torque.
A compound torsion pendulum whose direction of precession angular velocity is perpendicular to external force.
The direction of the moment is proportional to the angular velocity of the precession and the external torque.
The direction of screw precession is angular momentum which guides the direction of external torque with the shortest distance.
For the sake of understanding, we take the gyro of two degrees of freedom as an example.
When the external force moment acts on the inner frame shaft, the gyroscope rotates around the outer frame.
If the external force moment acts along the outer frame shaft, the gyroscope rotates around the inner frame.
3.2.2 Fixed axis of gyroscopes
The fixed axis of gyroscope means that when the rotor revolves around the self rotating shaft at high speed, it will be free from external force.
The rotation axis will remain unchanged relative to the inertia space. In other words,
Two degree of freedom gyro has resistance to disturbance torque, and tries to maintain relative inertia of rotor shaft.
The characteristics of the azimuthal stability of the space.
In practical gyroscopes, due to imperfect structure and technology, it is always impossible.
The interference torque is avoided. Therefore, it is more practical to check the axis of gyroscope.
What is of significance is to check the axis of rotation in a limited period of time under the condition of interference.
The ability to maintain a stable position. From the precession of the gyroscope, we can know the interference force.
Under the action of the moment, the gyroscope will have precession so that the self rotating shaft deviates from its original position.
The azimuth deviation is called drift.
Generally speaking, the drift of the frame gyroscope is large, from several degrees per hour to dozens of degrees.
This is why the frame gyro inclinometer is required before the measurement.
The north of the stake is the reason why the North must be checked after the survey is finished.
3.3 Apparent precession of gyroscopes
Because the gyroscope’s self axis keeps its bearings relative to the inertial space (when the gyroscope is used)
The drift of the relative inertia of the earth caused by the rotation of the earth is small enough.
In comparison, it is possible to approximate the position of gyroscope relative to inertial space.
The earth rotates around the polar axis relative to the inertial space at its rotation speed.
If we take the earth as a reference, we will see that the gyroscope’s rotation axis is opposite to the earth.
The relative motion is called the apparent movement of the gyroscope.
The essence of apparent motion is that the gyroscope can track and measure the rotation speed of the earth. example
For example, at any latitude of the earth, a high-precision two degree of freedom gyroscope is placed.
And make the self rotating shaft in the local vertical position, as shown in the picture, you can see the top of the gyroscope.
The rotation axis will gradually deviate from the local vertical line, while the relative earth will be conical rail.
The apparent precession of the track moves for one week every 24 hours. If the self rotating shaft is made to be in the position
When the meridian line is located, the gyro rotation axis will gradually deviate from the local meridian.
The line is also relative to the apparent precession of the earth’s cone orbit, every 24 hours a week.
3.4 Coordinate system
When measuring the angular velocity of the earth, we need to understand several main points first.
Coordinate system: inertial coordinate system and geographical coordinate system.
l       Inertial coordinate system: usually the heliocentric inertial coordinate system represents inertial space.
The origin of the coordinates is in the center of the sun, and the coordinate axis points to the stars.
l       The earth coordinate system: the geographic coordinate system and the earth fixed connection.
Turn. The origin of the coordinate is the center of the earth, and the axis coincides with the axis of the earth.
It points to the intersection of the meridian plane and the equator plane, and the axis forms the right-hand coordinate system.
l       Geographic coordinate system: when setting up the geographic coordinate system, the origin is the middle of the instrument.
The heart or the earth’s surface is a point, along with the local level.
The vertical line points above. Customarily, we use “East, north, sky” or “north, West, and sky”.
The right hand coordinate system is formed in order.
Therefore, the rotation of the earth can be regarded as the relative inertial coordinate system of the earth coordinate system.
After rotating the geographic coordinate system, we can calculate the geographical location.
The absolute angular velocity of the standard system. If we take “north, West and sky” as geographic coordinates,
The angular velocity of the earth coordinate system relative to the inertial coordinate system is in the geographical coordinate system.
The projection on the above is:
As shown in the picture.


It can be seen that the angular velocity of the earth is only in the north direction and the zenith upward.
There is a horizontal component and a vertical component.
3.5 Measurement principle of gyroscope inclinometer
The gyroscope inclinometer is used to measure the position and tilt of the measuring points.
The angle determines the spatial location of the borehole axis, and at the same time, in order to cooperate with the drill string, it must
Get the tool face angle at any time. When measuring, we choose the following two seats.
Standard system: the geographical coordinate system (North West day) and the probe coordinate system, the first two coordinates.
The corresponding axes coincide with each other. Azimuth, tilt angle and tool face angle are respectively
The phase of the coordinate system should be rotated.
l       First, rotate the angle A in the negative direction of the axis, that is, azimuth.
Department;
l       Then rotate the angle I in the negative direction of the shaft, that is, the inclination angle.
Department;
l       Finally, the negative direction rotation angle T, which is the tool face angle, is obtained.
To the Department;
According to the relative rotation relations among the coordinate systems mentioned above, we can get the following conclusions.
The cosine matrix between the physical coordinate system and the probe coordinate system makes it as if
The following relations are established:
( 1)
The components of the earth’s angular velocity and gravity acceleration in the geographic coordinate system are already
According to the above analysis, we can get the following knowledge:
( 2)
Therefore, the earth’s rotation velocity and gravity acceleration can be detected in the probe coordinates.
Each component in a system:
(3)
(4)
( 5)
( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
Among them:
——— The horizontal component for the rotation velocity of the earth
——— The vertical component for the rotation velocity of the earth
——— For local latitudes
From (3) to (8), we can find out,
( 9)
( 10 )
( 11 )

 

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